Orijinalini görmek için tıklayınız : Comprehension Passages 2

01-16-2012, 16:05
Read the passages and find the best mark the answers

The official language of the Czech Republic is Czech, a highly complex western Slavic tongue. Any attempt from foreigners to speak Czech will be heartily appreciated, so do not be discouraged if people fail to understand you, as most will be accustomed to hearing foreigners stumble through their language. If you don't know any Czech, brush up on your German, since, among the older generation at least, it is still the most widely spoken second language. Russian, once the compulsory second language has been practically wiped off the school curriculum, and the number of English speakers has been steadily increasing, especially among the younger generation.

1-It is clear from the passage that…………. .
A)more Czechs speak German than any other foreign language
B)as their own language is so difficult, Czechs prefer German
C)everyone in the Czech Republic speaks several languages
D)Czechs usually laugh at foreigners who try to speak Czech
E)Czechs learn English during childhood and German later

2-The author informs us that……….. .
A)it is now illegal for Czechs to speak Russian
B)Czechs do not want to speak German as it reminds them of the German occupation
C)most Czech schools offer courses in the Russian language
D)the influence of Russia is still felt in certain areas of the Czech Republic
***E)Czechs were once required to study Russian at school

3-This passage would most likely appear in ………… .
A)a grammar book of the Czech language
B)a history book of the Czech Republic
C)a book about English language teaching
D)a travel guide for the Czech Republic
E)an article on the social history of the Czech people

The religion of the Jewish people, Judaism, is based largely on the teachings of Moses and other leaders as recounted in the Old Testament of the Bible. It is significant for being the oldest monotheistic religion - belief in one supreme being, which is given various names by the Jews themselves, including Yahweh, Jehovah and God. The two other important sacred books are the Talmud and the Torah, which contain the many laws and observances orthodox Jews are supposed to keep. The principal festival is the Feast of Passover: the principal place of worship is the synagogue and the priests are called Rabbis. Judaism is also noted for being the religion from which Christianity and Islam developed. There are about 14 million followers, about 3 million in Israel itself, and the remainder distributed throughout the world.

4-The passage suggests that Judaism is an important religion because …………….. .
A)it has three gods, all of whom are extremely powerful
B)it has many laws that the orthodox must follow
C)Moses was brought up under Jewish tradition
D)it was the first religion to believe in a single god
E)it has the largest number of followers among the major religions

5-It can be understood from the passage that………….. .
A)Yahweh and Jehovah are the names of Jewish holy writings
B)synagogues are rarely used these days, except by the orthodox
C)the constitution of Israel is based largely on the Torah
D)the job of the Rabbi is to enforce the law of the Talmud
E)the Jewish religion has at least three important sacred books

6-According to the passage, ………………… .
A)a large majority of the world's Jews live in Israel
***B)Christianity and Islam have historical ties with Judaism
C)Judaism is the most common religion in the world
D)there is quite a strong Christian influence on Judaism
E)the Jewish religion is influenced by the teachings of both Islam and Christianity

Laws are the collection of rules by which any state maintains order within a society. In Great Britain, the law-making process is conducted by Parliament. Proposed new laws are presented as Bills and if, after debate, they are accepted by a majority vote in the House of Commons, they duly become law. In Great Britain, as in most countries, there are several distinct types of laws. Constitutional law is concerned with the processes of the government itself Company law deals with the operation of many of the nation's commercial and financial activities. These are branches of State law, that is, laws made by acts of Parliament. Common law, by contrast, is based on past decisions taken by the courts on various issues.

7-The aim of laws, as described in the passage, is …….. .
A)to punish people who insist on violating them
B)to secure the people's control of the government
C)to protect the government and people from chaos
D)to increase the government's authority over the people
E)to keep threats to the existence of the state under control

8-The author informs us that Constitutional law………….. .
A)cannot be changed by simple acts of Parliament
B)is composed of several distinct types of Bills
C)causes great concern to Members of Parliament
D)has little bearing on the government of Britain
E)is related to the way the government does its job

9-As is stated In the passage, the difference between State and common laws is that………. .
A)State laws only effect Members of Parliament, not common people
B)common law was only valid in the past, while State law is still used
C)only State laws actually have financial consequences to the people
***D)the former are made by acts of Parliament, the latter, by the courts
E)the latter is applied to common people, but not to parliamentarians

The term 'castle' is most commonly applied to the fortresses belonging to European kings or important nobles during the Middle Ages. The first of this type were built by the Normans in France, during the eleventh century. They were constructed of wood and consisted simply of a tower built on a mound and stood in a courtyard, which was surrounded by a fence and a ditch. By the twelfth century, the wooden tower had given way to a stone one, containing living accommodation for the whole household, centred on the Great hall, and surrounded by a strong wall. As new methods of attack developed, the outer fortifications became more elaborate in order to withstand them.

10-We can conclude from the passage that…………. .
A)a castle was a certain type of early defensive structure
B)every noble in the Middle Ages had his own castle
C)the first fortress was built in Europe in the Middle Ages
D)the first castle built by the Normans remained inhabited for a century
E)castles were used for defence, not as residences

11- The author makes it clear that in the12th century, …. .
A)the Normans became less influential in Europe
B)the towers were built of stone
C)a castle consisted only of a tower
D)a castle was still a residence only for the army
E)castles were strong enough to repel any attack

12-We learn that castles became stronger and more defensive………….. .
A)as new and better construction methods were developed
B)as they began to accommodate larger populations
C)in reaction to the development of new military strategies
D)as more and more buildings were added for the increasing population
E) when stone and wood were used together as building materials

Mozart made his first visit to Prague with his wife Constance in 1787, staying with his friend and patron Count Thun. A year earlier, his opera The Marriage of Figaro, which had failed to please the opera snobs in Vienna, was given a marvellous reception in Prague. Encouraged by this, he chose to premiere his next opera, Don Giovanni, in Prague rather than in Vienna. He arrived with an incomplete score in hand, and finished it there, dedicating it to the 'good people of Prague'. Mozart's final visit to Prague took place in 1791, the year of his death. The climax of the stay was the premiere of Mozart's final opera, La Calmness di Tito, according to legend, completed on the coach from Vienna to Prague.

13- We learn from the passage that TheMarriage of Figaro………….. .
A)was given its first ever performance in 1786, in Prague
B)was more highly appreciated in Vienna than in Prague
C)had obviously not been a success in Vienna
D)was clearly the first opera that Mozart had ever written
E)encouraged Mozart to write his next opera Don Giovanni

14-The passage tells us that Mozart…………… .
***A)gave the first performance of Don Giovanni in Prague
B)wrote and performed two complete operas while in Prague
C)only visited Prague twice, 4though he really liked the city
D)died in 1791 while he was visiting Prague to see his opera
E)moved from Vienna to Prague, where he was more appreciated

15-It is mentioned in the passage that La Clemenza di Tito…… .
A)was Mozart's least popular opera in Prague
B)was based on a legend which Mozart had heard in Prague
C)brought Mozart to Prague for a very short visit
D)was given its final form in Prague
E) was apparently unfinished when Mozart left Vienna

Ever since the 1978 Camp David Agreement and the 1979 peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel, the Suez Canal has been filled with a constant flow of maritime traffic. It is 163 km long, but still not wide enough to accommodate modern ships sailing in opposite directions. There are plans to widen the canal but, for now, ships can pass only at two points - the Bitter Lakes and Al-Ballan. With a depth of 19,5 metres, the canal is deep enough for most ships, except for super tankers. The canal is the prime source of hard currency for Egypt's troublesome economy. Each of the 50 ships that pass through the canal each day is charged a fee based on its size and weight. The average fee is about $70,000.

16- It is implied in the passage that………… .
A)the famous Camp David is located near the Suez Canal
B)the Suez Canal was constructed sometime after 1979
C)there are no bridges anywhere that cr6ss the Suez Canal
***D)in the period before 1979, fewer ships used the Suez Canal
E)the traffic on the Suez Canal makes shipping dangerous

17- The passage suggests that…………. .
A)the Egyptians could make more money if they widened the Suez Canal
B)without the canal, the Egyptian government would be much better off
C)super tankers must proceed very carefully while going through the canal
D)the bigger and heavier a ship is, the more it has to pay to use the canal
E)the Israelis get a sizeable commission from the Suez Canal's traffic

18-It can be determined from the figures in the passage that…………. .
A)most ships on the Suez Canal are under 20 metres tail
B)a large ship pays about $1,400 to pass through the canal
C)the Egyptians make, on average. over $3,500,000 a day from the canal
D)the Suez Canal is less than 20 metres wide in most parts
E)passage through the canal costs almost $100 per kilometre

The Normans originally came from Scandinavia and were of Viking descent. During the tenth century they invaded and conquered the northern part of France, which is still called Normandy. In the next century, under William the Conqueror, they invaded and subdued England. This event brought about the end of Saxon England and saw the start of a new era of English history, with new forms of architecture and a new form of social and political order called the feudal system. It is interesting to note that while William was conquering England, other Norman chiefs sailed down the coast of France and Spain, entered the Mediterranean Sea and conquered Sicily and some parts of southern Italy. Norman knights from France and Italy also played a leading role in the Crusades.

19-It can be determined from the passage that……………… .
A)for centuries, there was a war between the Normans and Vikings
B)before coming to France, the Normans were peaceful people
C)the Normans conquered France with the help of the people living in Normandy
D)England was conquered by William in the eleventh century
E)the Normans escaped from Scandinavia due to the oppression of the Vikings

20-In addition to changing the government of England, the Normans…………… .
A)incorporated many Saxon words into their language
B)brought an end to the English feudal system
***C)altered the way the English constructed buildings
D)forced the Saxons to help them invade Sicily and Italy
E)ordered the re-writing of English history books

21-From the passage, we understand that…………… .
A)the Sicilians and Italians welcomed the Norman conquerors
B)the Normans were involved in conflicts in many places
C)the Crusades were lost largely because of the Normans
D)the French and Italians are essentially the same people
E)the Norman chiefs had soldiers of many nationalities

Each year, about 7.000 people in the United States are bitten by poisonous snakes. Fewer than a dozen of these persons die, but many are left with disability of a limb and scarring at the site of the bite. Persons at greatest risk are those who handle snakes for purposes of entertainment, religion or science. Outside the high-risk group, hunters, farmers and fishermen are the most likely to be bitten. The best way to tell the difference between a poisonous and a non-poisonous bite is to identify the snake. A non-poisonous bite doesn't usually cause much pain or swelling, though the wound may bleed freely. When there is any doubt as to whether the snake is venomous, presume that the bite was poisonous and take precautions.

22-According to the passage, the people who have the highest chance of being bitten by a snake are those who ………. .
A)hunt animals for sport or who deal with farming
B)try to catch snakes and put them in captivity
C)are unable to distinguish between different snakes
D)work directly with snakes or worship using them
E)are very religious and don't think they'll be bitten

23-The passage informs us that in the USA ……….. .
A)fewer than twelve people die of snakebites annually, although many people are bitten
B)people who have been bitten by snakes get rid of its effects
C)completely in the long term only twelve percent of those who have been bitten by snakes lose their lives
D)farmers and fishermen are more likely to be bitten by snakes than entertainers using snakes
E)many people bitten by snakes are too afraid to revisit the place where it happened

24-The author suggests that if you have been bitten, and haven't managed to identify the snake, …………. .
A)you shouldn't panic but should wait to see whether the bitten area will swell or not
B)you should make the wound bleed in order to remove any poison
C)you can assume you're not at risk if the bite doesn't hurt a lot
D)it is doubtful that the snake that bit you was venomous
E)you should be treated as if the snake was poisonous

The word 'politics' comes from the Latin politia, meaning 'policy', and politics is generally defined as the science or art of government. Politics has played ah increasing part in human affairs since men and women first organised themselves into societies, and most of history is an account of politics in one form or another. There were brief periods, of relatively free or representative government during the Greek and Roman eras. But until the seventeenth century, politics was mostly the concern of powerful monarchs or other people in positions of high authority, such as church leaders. The rise of political parties during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries introduced the concept of government by consent rather than by force.

25-In the writer's opinion, politics………….. .
A)has always been dominated by monarchs or religious leaders
B)has had little effect on ordinary people since the beginning of history
***C)is really what a great deal of history is about
D)has always been a very expensive business
E)is a much more interesting subject than history

26-Obviously, during the Greek and Roman eras, there were short periods…………. .
A)when the government members represented the people
B)when people didn't have to give taxes to the government
C)which were completely free from any kind of politics
D)when government members all came from the same, royal family
E)when there was absolutely no government whatsoever

27-It is clear from the passage that in the 17th century………….. .
A)government and politics were always in the hands of kings
B)there was a change in that governments started to rule by force
C)church leaders began to govern countries instead of kings
D)the state of politics was a cause of great concern to most leaders
E)a radical change in the concept of government began to take place

Rubber trees are tapped - that is, cuts are made in the bark so that the latex, a milk-like Juice, containing about 30-40% rubber, can be obtained. The latex is then processed by exposing it to heat and wood smoke, or by mechanical means, so as to separate the rubber from the 'water, mineral salts, sugars, resins and protein matters. The rubber obtained in this way is known as, 'crude' - latex is extensively used in industry for making foam rubber, products. footwear, dolls etc. Untreated crude rubber is naturally soft and lacks the required strength for making into manufactured articles. To improve its strength and usefulness, it is vulcanised, or heated with sulphur, and the proportion of sulphur used determines the hardness and elasticity of, the rubber.

28-From its description, we can say that latex………… .
A)is a hard substance similar to rubber
B)must be a fairly thin, white liquid
C)is almost entirely pure rubber
D)is a by-product of rubber
E)is less useful than crude rubber

29-It~s stated in the passage that untreated crude rubber is not used in industry, because…….. .
A)its content of sulphur carries a nasty odour
B)its milky colour is undesirable
C)it lacks any kind of elasticity
D)it's neither hard nor strong enough
E)it contains far too many impurities

30-In the process of vulcanisation, the principle is, that………… .
A)the heat applied to the mixture should be high enough for rapid evaporation
B)the sulphur contained in the rubber should be extracted as much as possible
C)how hard or flexible the rubber becomes depends, on its sulphur content
D)the more sulphur is used, the harder and the more elastic the rubber becomes
E)the rubber can be separated from water by being heated at high temperatures

The origins of a written literature can be found in most of the civilisations of the ancient world; in India. China and among the Jewish people, whose great work of literature is the Old Testament of the Bible. However, it is the Greeks whose literature is taken to represent the start of Western literature. Their greatest single contribution was drama, a form of literature that has continued undiminished to the present day. Other literary forms that developed from the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans onward have been poetry in its many different styles and forms, the essay, biography and autobiography, and the novel. Other types of written work from these periods, dealing with such matters as history, philosophy, politics, religion, science and criticism may also be classified as literature from the point of view of style.

31- We understand from the passage that………. .
A)the Greeks were not alone as writers of early literature
B)The Romans greatly influenced the Greek playwrights
C)Jews wrote the Bible in places like India and China
D)the Jews are responsible for the start of religious writing
E)all ancient civilisations had their own characteristic literature

32-It is clear from the passage that………….. .
A)the best drama ever written was that of the Greeks
B)drama is only one of many forms of literature
C)drama has become increasingly better through the ages
D)of all Greek literature, only drama remains today
E)Greek and Roman drama contains lots of poetry

33- This passage suggests that written history, philosophy and science………….. .
A)generally appear to have much more style than other literature
B)are quite unrelated to what most scholars usually call literature
C)can be considered literature because of the way they were written
D)are much more important than forms stitch as drama and poetry
E)frequently receive large amounts of criticism by literary people

Our tour group of forty people made the train Journey from Hong Kong to Guangzhou on Christmas Day, 1979. We were taken to the thirty-three storey White Cloud Hotel. Even though it was only two years old, the rooms and furnishings already seemed frayed and old. Tips were not allowed and the hotel staff appeared rude. Breakfast was served promptly at seven forty-five. Forty fried eggs appeared on forty plates laid out at four separate tables, ten to a table. Most of our group were still asleep in their beds while their eggs awaited them. ****l teapots were banged on to the tables, together with eighty pieces of toast, twenty per table. At nine sharp, breakfast was over. Eggs, tea and toast were taken away by waitresses within five minutes. This was our introduction to life in Communist China.

34-The author makes it clear that the white Cloud Hotel……….. .
A)was really quite a small hotel
B)was modern but lull of antiques
C)had thirty three rooms in total
D)had rather unfriendly staff
E)was close to a train station

35- It's implied in the passage that breakfast at the White Cloud Hotel……….. .
A)was served from seven to seven forty-five
B)was delivered by room service to some guests
C)could be selected from a wide-ranging menu
D)was generous and delicious with fast service
E)was served whether guests wanted it or not

36-We can conclude from the author's statements that her overall impression of the hotel was that…………. .
A)it was generally efficient and well-run
B)it was extremely luxurious and relaxing
C)the service was slow and inefficient
D)it was shabby and totally impersonal
E)the catering at the hotel was superb

By his own account, Quintus Horatius Flaccus was a terrible soldier. He fought for the losing side in civil wars. When the order came to "Attack!", he dropped his shield and ran in the wrong direction. Back in Rome, he got a job as a petty bureaucrat. It was not a very good job, but it left him plenty of time to write. And his writing is what the poet whom we know as Horace is still remembered for to this day. Maybe it is a good thing that he dropped his shield and ran. Who remembers the ones who died, or their cause? This is, perhaps, the proof that the pen really is mightier than the sword!

37-Quintus Horatius Flaccus is best known as ……….. .
A)a terrible soldier
B)a coward who ran away from battles
C)the man who reformed the Roman bureaucracy
D)the man who proved that the pen is mightier than the sword
E)the poet who wrote under the name of Horace

38-The author believes that …………. .
A)writers are more memorable than soldiers
B)soldiers who died fighting for a good cause are remembered
C)Rome was a dangerous place for poets
D)it is safer to be a bureaucrat than a poet
E)soldiers are more patriotic than poets

39-We learn from the passage that Horace" job as a bureaucrat……….. .
A)occupied him too much to write poetry
B)prepared him for higher ranks in his later life
C)was not a high-ranking one
D)proved that he was not a coward
E)was not actually less dangerous than being a soldier

The Hindenburg was the last in a series of airships designed to carry passengers and cargo over long distances. It could carry fifty passengers in twenty-five luxury cabins with all the comforts of a first class hotel. Cruising at 125 km per hour, it could cross the Atlantic in half the time of the great luxury ocean liners, which it had been built to compete with. But in 1937, the Hindenburg came to an unfortunate end in New Jersey just as it was about to land. In spite of extensive safety precautions, the highly flammable hydrogen with which it was filled burst into flames. Remarkably though, sixty-two of the ninety-seven people on board were able to escape.

40-It is clear from the passage that………… .
A)the Hindenburg was one of the most successful airships of all times
B)the Hindenburg had a component containing hydrogen
C)in speed and size, the Hindenburg was much like a luxury ocean liner
D)the Hindenburg exploded as it was taking off from New Jersey
B)none of the passengers survived the disaster

41-The passage tells us that………… .
A)only the very rich could afford to travel on airships like the Hindenburg
B) the luxury ocean liners could cross the Atlantic twice the time that an airship could
C)the number of passengers an airship could carry was almost half that of a luxury ocean liner
D)life aboard the great airships was cramped and uncomfortable
E)an ocean liner was slower, but much more luxurious than an airship

42-It is stated in the passage that………… .
A)the Hindenburg was one of the first great airships
B)there were sixty-two people on board at the time of the disaster
C)ocean liners filled with hydrogen often ended up with explosions
D)after the Hindenburg disaster, there were no more airships of the same type
E)the great airships had a passenger capacity of from twenty-five to fifty passengers

Mountaineering as a sport has developed since about 1857, when the Alpine Club was founded in London. Earlier, climbers did not climb for pleasure but for some scientific or monetary motive, Dr Paccard of Chamonix was the first to scale Mont Blanc, in 1786, to show that man could live above the snow-line, but it was the lectures of Albert Smith, who climbed the peak in 1851, that kindled British interest. In 1854, Wills climbed the Wetterhorn and eleven years later, Whymper made his famous ascent of the Matterhorn. By 1880, all the major peaks of the Alps had been scaled, and so climbers went further afield to the Andes and the Himalayas.

43-The passage states that before the 1850s, ……….. .
A)one had to pay in order to climb mountains
B)mountain climbing cost a lot of money
C)the Alpine Club opened in London
D)people only climbed for research purposes
E)climbing was not regarded as a hobby

44-British People in general first paid attention to mountaineering when………. .
A)Mont Blanc was climbed for the first time
B)the Alpine club was initially founded in London
C)they realised that man could live above the snow-line
***D)a man made a series of, speeches on the subject
E)Dr Paccard climbed Mont Blanc in 1786

45-It is implied that European climbers first started climbing mountains outside Europe………….. .
A)because the Alps in Europe took far too long to climb
B)once they had been inspired by Albert Smith's lectures
C)in order to obtain the sizeable financial benefits on offer
D)so that they could make field maps of other areas
E)as they wanted to climb previously unclimbed mountains

Fossil analysis reveals that at least five periods in the last 600 million years have seen a drastic reduction in the number of species of flora and fauna on the Earth. However, on previous occasions such changes were brought about by asteroids or dramatic climatic changes. Experts in general believe that this decline is the work of man. The dominance of a single species type, homo sapiens, threatens to turn the rest of the living 'world upside down. With a population of barely six billion, humans are rapidly destroying irreplaceable ecosystems. This sixth round of global dying of species could be far larger than the first five.

46-According to the passage, the dominant belief among scientists is that……….. .
A)throughout history there have been periods when many species of life have become extinct
B)the present climatic change known as global warming is probably a natural phenomenon
C)the Earth is in danger of being struck by an asteroid
D)the present decline in the number of species is caused by the activities of mankind
E)we are experiencing the fifth period of species dying out

47-From the passage, we understand that the term "homo sapiens” is…………. .
A)a method of analysing fossils
B)a way of referring to a large number of species of flora and fauna
C)another term for the human race
D)an irreplaceable ecosystem which is being destroyed
E)a hostile environment in which many species die

48-The author predicts that …………. .
A)there will be no harmful effects from so many species dying
B)the world might be turned upside down by colliding with an asteroid
C)mankind will find a solution to the problem
D)more species may die out this time than ever before
E)the human population will soon reach six billion

Rays of sunlight travel from 150 million kilometres away, and when they reach the Earth, they are parallel rays. The curve of the Earth means that the rays are vertical at the Equator but at quite a low angle when they reach temperate latitudes. As the rays lose heat passing through the atmosphere, the more direct the journey, the greater the heat which penetrates through to the surface of the Earth. The vertical rays in equatorial latitudes mean that it is much hotter at the Equator than it is in the regions where the sun's rays strike at a low angle. It is these variations in temperature that are largely responsible for the changes in weather.

49-The purpose of this passage is to explain…………. .
A)the distance between the Earth and the Sun
B)why sun-rays travel in a vertical position
C)why the weather is different in different parts of the Earth
D)why sun-rays are parallel when they reach the Earth
E)the way in which the Earth goes around the Sun

50-From the information given in the passage, it is clear that…………. .
A)temperate regions are cooler than equatorial regions as sun-rays travel through more atmosphere to reach them
B)it is hotter in equatorial regions because they are closer to the Sun
C) when it is summer in the northern hemisphere. it is winter in the southern hemisphere
D)sun-rays lose heat in passing through space
E)summer is when the Earth is closest to the Sun

51-The angle at which the sun's rays strike the surface of the Earth is determined by……. .
A)the density of the Earth's atmosphere
B)the parallel nature of the sun-rays
C)the direct journey which the sun-rays make to equatorial regions
D)the curvature of the Earth
E)the variations in temperature on the Earth

The concept of a national library is a recent one in. the developing countries. In the developed countries, national libraries have existed since at least the sixteenth century. By the nineteenth century, most countries in Europe had already established national libraries. The typical national library is meant to be the finest collection of books in the country, the national book archive, and a source of national pride. Although it is important for a national library in a developing country to collect the national literature, and any other literature pertaining to that country, it is also important for the library to collect a wide range of scholarly literature published in other countries.

52-We learn from the passage that………. .
A)every country must have a national library.
B)national libraries only exist in developed countries
C)by the nineteenth century most developing countries had established national libraries
D)developed countries have had national libraries for longer than developing ones
E)a national library is relatively easy to establish

53-According to the passage, in the 19th century, there were few………… .
A)European countries without a national library
B)developing countries that hadn't established a national library
C)libraries in the developing countries owning books published in other countries
D)libraries having the finest collection of world literature
E)developing countries having a work of literature that has existed since the l6thcentury

54-The author believes that a national library in a developing country should……….. .
A)contain the country's written works as well as foreign scholarly works
B)try to be better than a similar library in a developed country
C)take into account the prevailing climatic conditions of the country
D)develop a concept that has existed for a longer time in developed countries
E)establish guide-lines for the national literature

The 'forest fire season' in Canada generally extends from the latter part of April to mid-October. During last year's fire season, 9,317 forest fires burned a total of 2,618,299 acres of forest land. Weather conditions contributing to fire spread, coupled with unusually frequent and violent electrical storms, resulted in one of the most severe outbreaks of forest fires on record. Over the, season, 35.3% of all fires 'were caused by lightning. While these fires are generally considered to be more disastrous because of their tendency to start in difficult-to-reach areas -'88% of the total acreage burned last was attributed to lightning - man is nonetheless responsible for the greatest portion of forest fires. Human negligence was blamed 'for a total of 6,018 forest fires last year.

55-The passage informs us that last year's forest fires were Particularly bad because of......... .
A)unfavourable weather conditions, combined with violent lightning
B)the amount of damage caused to wildlife
C)the inefficiency of the fire-fighters in reaching the burning area quickly
D)the unusually long 'forest fire season’
E)human ignorance and carelessness

56-We are told that fires started by lightning cannot easily be controlled because…….. .
A)they are extremely violent and severe
B)they happen so frequently
C)they usually start in inaccessible places
D)they generally take place at night
E)storms make it hard for firemen to work

57- In view of the figures given In the-age, most of the damage caused by forest fires last year
A)was a result of fires started deliberately by humans
B)came from fires which were started by lightning
C)resulted from the lack of, people available to fight fires
D)happened because of fires started accidentally by humans
E)came about because people lit fires in remote places

That evening we arrived in Delhi, the great walled city of the Mogul Empire, scattered with tombs and forts, many decayed or built over. Some scholars say that there are seven cities on the sites of Old and New Delhi, while some say more. The history is rich and stretches back centuries. At one time, Shah Jahan, the ruler who built the Taj Mahal, reconstructed Old Delhi, restoring large bazars and streets leading to the fortress. As there was no wall on the eastern side, where the River Yumuna flows; Delhi was sacked regularly over the centuries, the last time being in the eighteenth century, when the Persian ruler Nadir Shah looted treasures that included the Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-noor diamond.

58- From the description in the passage, It is apparent that Delhi …….. .
A)is about seven centuries old, according to some scholars
B)has obviously not changed very much since it was first built
C)is an extremely wealthy city, with many rich inhabitants
D)is full of poorly-maintained and neglected historical sites
E)was completely surrounded by walls during the Mogul Empire

59- We understand from the passage that Shah Jahan ……… .
A)was interested in restoration and new buildings
B)was one of the earliest rulers of Old Delhi
C)built the Taj Mahal in the suburbs of Old Delhi
D)constructed several large bazaars as well as a fortress
E)built the Taj Mahal and Old Delhi at the same time

60-From the information in the passage, It is likely that Nadir Shah…….. .
A)entered the city of Delhi from the eastern side
B)was the first raider to enter Delhi after the 18th century
C)was the only ruler to enter Delhi successfully in centuries
D)paid a lot of money for the goods he got in Delhi
E)only took the Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-noor diamond from Delhi

The shiny ****l supermarket shopping trolley. port of the landscape since the 1960s, is on the way out. Sainsbury's is introducing what it calls a bionic trolley, made of recyclable plastic, which is lighter, easier to control and, in theory, lasts for ever. Its headquarters in Ashford, Kent, has ordered 450 plastic trolleys and eventually the company plans to replace 250.000 ****l ones at its 395 stores. The new brightly coloured plastic trolley is made of a substance called Durethan, which is a recyclable material used for making cars. The only ****l part of the trolley will be the nuts used to hold it together. A Sainsbury's spokeswoman said that unlike the existing ****l trolleys, which have to be removed from service if damaged and have an average life of seven years. the new trolleys can be taken apart and repaired.

61-We may conclude from the passage that the old supermarket trolleys………… .
A)were supposed to last for ever when they were first introduced
B)are being replaced in response to customer demand
C)are not at all heavy or difficult for shoppers to use
D)are often removed from the shops and left lying around
E)are less environmentally-friendly than the new ones

62-It is obvious from the passage that Sainsbury's .…. .
A)plans to supply the new trolleys to other firms
B)is a company which runs a chain of supermarkets
C)is replacing all its trolleys with 450 plastic ones
D)will be constructing its own trolleys from Durethan
E)has about 250.000 plastic trolleys in storage

63-One way in which the new 'bionic' trolleys differ from the old ****l trolleys is that……. .
A)the new ones will only have to be repaired about every seven years
B)the old style of trolley has to be repaired on a regular basis
C)the old ****l ones have to be sent away for regular servicing
D)the new ones will last for about seven years longer than the old ones
***E)the new trolleys are reparable and thus don't have to be replaced

In 1948. in an effort to stabilise the currency, the Chinese government announced the issue of a new form of currency, called the Gold Yuan Certificate. This measure was necessary because the people had lost all confidence in the old currency, called the Fa Bi. Inflation had escalated to the point where one US dollar was worth 11 million Fa Bi Official announcements called for all Chinese to turn in their old banknotes, their gold and silver and their foreign currency. Gold Yuan Certificates would be given in exchange, supposedly backed by gold and each worth four to one American dollar. Immediately there was a gold rush, as most private depositors withdrew their precious ****ls and foreign currency from local banks, because no one with common sense believed that there was any gold to back those certificates.

64-The writer states that the Chinese government had to issue the Gold Yuan Certificates………… .
A)in response to people and banks hoarding foreign currency
B)owing to financial pressure from American bankers
C)after the supply of the Fa Bi dropped to an all-time low
D)because the people had lost faith in the old currency
E)in order to compete with the American dollar on an equal basis

65-We learn that the Gold Yuan Certificates………. .
A)represented gold actually held by the Chinese government
***B)were the invention of the Chinese government's efforts to combat inflation
C)were each worth approximately eleven million Chinese Yuan
D)could be readily exchanged for American dollars at most banks
E)were intended by the government to be used alongside the old Fa Bi

66-One may deduce that people rushed to take their valuables out of the bank…….. .
A)because they believed the certificates were worthless
B)in order to buy more gold in the gold rush
C)because banks were going bankrupt
D)so that they could buy Gold Yuan Certificates
E)because they wanted to buy US dollars

Cities are a universal symbol of civilisation. They have been found in every country that has gone beyond a simple agricultural economy, regardless of whether there was industrial or technological development. The history of civilisation is the history of the city. From their origins as places where people gathered for mutual safety or defence, cities have gone on to become marketplaces for goods and ideas, seats of government, and centres of religious devotion. By division of labour and by easing communication between people, cities created the opportunity to invent new technologies and new ways of viewing life. While many individual geniuses have come from rural backgrounds, it has been in the cities that they have found inspiration and scope for their talents.

67- The author argues that cities……… .
A)have only arisen in countries that are industrially or technologically developed
B)are also centres of agricultural activity and development
***C)are a worldwide phenomenon and have cultural and historical significance
D)have developed in every country that has had a simple agricultural economy
E)have created more geniuses than have rural areas

68-We learn from the passage that initially, cities ………. .
A)were simply places where people could find work
B)were primarily marketplaces where goods were traded
C)had importance. as governments were located there
***D)functioned as places of safety in times of danger
E)were centres where people gathered for religious reasons

69-The author suggests that geniuses……….. .
A)are almost never found in the country as they are of little use in such an environment
B)eventually come to realise that they are better off in the stimulating setting of the city
C)visit cities to get ideas and then return to their houses in more peaceful rural places
D)have no chance to improve themselves in intellectually uninspiring rural situations
***E)can be born anywhere, but have more opportunity to develop their talents in cities

One of the strangest sea stories is that of the sailing ship Mary Celeste. On November 5th 1872, she left New York bound for Genoa with a cargo of industrial alcohol and eleven people on board. A month later, she was seen by another ship, but the captain noticed that the Mary Celeste was sailing strangely, and decided to investigate. He found the ship to be completely deserted. The sails were set and in good condition, there was plenty of food and water, all the crew's personal possessions were on board, and there was food and drink on the cabin table. No one has ever been able to explain what happened, though there have been explanations varying from a mutiny among the crew to aliens in a spaceship taking everyone away.

70-The reason why there was no one on board the Mary Celeste………… .
A)was discovered by the captain of another ship
B)is that aliens took the captain and crew away in a spaceship
C)took several years to be discovered
***D)has never been found
E)was the mutiny among the crew

71-The Mary Celeste was sailing strangely because…….. .
***A)there was no one on board to sail the ship
B)it was not big enough to resist the giant ocean waves
C)the sails were not set properly
D)the ship was too heavy because of the crew's personal possessions
E)her cargo of industrial alcohol was above her capacity

72-It is clear from the passage that…….. .
A)there was a mutiny among the crew
B)the Mary Celeste was one of the finest sailing vessels of her day
C)the Mary Celeste was not well equipped for a long voyage
***D)the people on board the Mary Celeste disappeared inexplicably
E)the crew of the Mary Celeste had been hit by an epidemic

We are all born with a number of instinctive physical reactions, things we do automatically, which are called primitive reflexes. One of the most interesting is called "grasp reflex". If you touch the palm of a baby's hand, the fingers will close around, whatever object is doing the touching. The baby's grip is so strong that if a baby grasps a rod with both hands, it can be lifted right off the ground. Some psychologists think that this goes back to our evolutionary past when we had to be able to hang on to tree branches or to our mother's fur as she moved. The reflex disappears at about six months of age.

73-We understand from the passage that primitive reflexes……….. .
A)are concentrated in the palm of a baby's hand
B)are a way of lifting babies off the ground
C)sometimes disappear after six months
***D)are things which we do automatically from the time we are born
E)are objects about which babies' fingers tend to close

74-It is clear from the passage that………….. .
A)human babies are good at hanging on to tree branches
B)psychologists make babies hang from tree branches to test their theories
C)until six months of age babies think their mothers have fur
***D)very young babies are sometimes stronger than we might think
E)only people living in primitive conditions have reflexes

75- According to some psychologists, ………….. .
***A)"grasp reflex" can be explained by the evolutionary phases of the human species
B)a baby's grip is much stronger among the members of primitive societies
C)lifting a baby off the ground provides good exercise for growing babies
D)babies instinctively hang onto their mothers
E)human beings are all born with a number of instinctive physical reactions

In 1857, when scholars in the new reading room of the British Museum looked up from their books, they could gaze upon the inspiring vastness of the blue and copper dome above them. By the time it closed, 140 years later, they were cursing the many hours they had to look at the dome while they waited for their books to arrive. A book would seldom arrive within two hours of being ordered, and sometimes readers would have to wait up to two days. This was because, in addition to the museum, the books were stored all over London, and some as far away as a depot in Yorkshire.

76- We learn from the passage that……… .
A)after 140 years, the once beautiful dome had become ugly
***B)the reading room of the British Museum closed in 1997
C)readers protested against the closure of the reading room
D)the staff of the reading room of the British Mu8eum were helpful and efficient
E)the dome of the reading room of the British Museum attracted readers more than the books

77-The passage states that readers in the reading room of the British Museum……….. .
A)were actually there to admire the architecture of the building
B)requested the authorities to keep the books on the premises
C)did not mind waiting for their books because the building was so beautiful
D)often complained about the inefficiency of the staff there
***E)often had to wait a long time for their books to arrive

78- According to the passage, the books read in the reading room of the British Museum ……. .
A) were published over a period of 140 years
B)attracted scholars from all over London and as far away as Yorkshire
***C)were not always stored there
D)were so boring that readers preferred to look at the dome
E)included the best examples of the national literature

The piranha, in spite of its tiny size, is one of the most feared fish in the world. Piranhas live in the Aaron River, have very sharp teeth, and are capable of eating four times their body weight daily. This would not be so bad, if it were not for the way they attack in numbers. Even the smallest movement, like splashing your hand in the water, is enough to attract 300 piranhas in an instant A piranha attack can transform a live cow into a skeleton in a matter of minutes. When there is nothing else to eat, they will even eat each other.

79-According to the passage, the piranha…………. .
A)is the world's smallest fish
B)would not be so bad if it was better understood
***C)has sharp teeth and a large appetite
D)lives largely on a diet of its own species
E)is a salt water fish, similar to the shark

80-The passage tells us that…………… .
***A)piranhas are dangerous because so many of them gather to attack their prey
B)a single piranha can eat a cow in a matter of minutes
C)the average piranha eats four other piranhas every day
D)piranhas are useless because they are not edible
E)the Amazon River is full of cow skeletons

81-It is stated in the passage that in the absence of food, piranhas………….. .
***A)feed on each other
B)migrate to other rivers
C)get smaller in size
D)face a decline in their numbers
E)attack anything moving in the water

On August 11, 1911, the Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece, was stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris. The thief, Vincenzo Peruggia, a Louvre employee, stored the painting in the false bottom of a trunk in his flat for two years and then tried to sell it to his native Italy for $95,000. Italian officials promptly arrested him and returned the 300-year old masterpiece to France without a scratch. At his trial in Florence, Peruggia convinced the jury that his act was one of patriotism - that his sole motive was to return the famous painting to the land of its creator. Because of this declaration, he received a relatively light sentence of 1 year and 15 days.

82- It's understood from the passage that the thief, Vincenzo Peruggia, ……….. .
A)stole the Mona Lisa at the wish of the Italian authorities
***B)was an Italian living and working in 'France
C)had stolen many other priceless works of art
D)was a master criminal wanted in many countries
E)was a descendant of Leonardo da Vinci

83-After its two-year stay in Peruggia's flat, the Mona Lisa……….. .
A)had a few scratches on its surface
B)was found by the French police
C)had been totally destroyed
***D)was completely undamaged
E)was sold to an Italian museum

84-Peruggia's trail resulted in a somewhat easy punishment because……… .
A)his crime was considered a minor one
B) the Jury believed that the Mona Lisa actually belonged to Italy
C)the Mona Lisa was not damaged at all
D)the painting was safely returned to the Louvre Museum
***E)the Jurors were moved by his love of Italy

A century ago, the feats of the magician Harry Houdini thrilled audiences in Europe and America. We now remember him for his daring escapes from strait-jackets, chains and locked chests. His astonishing illusions of stage magic are all but extinct in the West, but are alive and thriving in the East. The reason is simple., Houdini's kind of magic relied or potent chemicals, which were easy to get in Victorian times. Today, however, the people in the West are more safely conscious, and there is little hope ,of finding the highly toxic ingredients necessary for Houdini's spells. But if you visit any Indian bazaar, even in the smallest towns, you can buy anything from phosphorus to nitric acid at bargain prices.

85-Harry Houdini……….. .
A)was an Indian who performed his tricks mostly in Europe and the USA
***B)was a famous magician who lived about a hundred years ago
C)was the least safety-conscious chemist of the Victorian era
D)used to buy all his chemicals in Indian bazaars
E)had his life changed by a visit to India

86- It is stated in the passage that………. .
***A)the sort of magic Houdini performed a century ago can be seen in India today
B)Houdini's kind of magic died out because it was boring, due to its extreme safety
C)famous magicians such as Houdini perform in Indian bazaars
D)Houdini cheated his audiences because he used chemicals instead of real magic
E)India has produced some of the most famous magicians in the world

87-The author believes that………… .
A)we can easily find the chemicals used by Houdini anywhere in the world
B)the people in the West no longer like magical performances
***C)Westerners are more interested in their safety now than, In the past
D)Houdini took the secrets of his craft to India before he died
E)chemicals needed by magicians should be freely available to everyone

There are two kinds of water pollution. The first is when rubbish, sewage or chemicals are thrown into the water. This waste upsets the natural environment and can prove dangerous or fatal to fish and other life in the water. The second type of pollution is thermal, or warm water pollution. This is most commonly caused by hydroelectric power plants. These take water from a lake or river, convert it into steam for running the plant's turbines, change the steam back into water, then return the water to the original lake or river. Though this water is no dirtier than when it was taken out, it is often five to ten degrees above its original temperature. This causes a change in the environment which can be as dangerous to, aquatic life as waste 'pollution.

88-It is stated In the passage that …………. .
A)thermal pollution is more dangerous than pollution from rubbish or chemicals
B)warm water pollution Is as harmful as thermal pollution
C)hydroelectric plants put dirty water back into the environment
***D)thermal pollution occurs when the temperature of a river or lake is raised
E)aquatic life is merely disturbed by thermal pollution

89-Rubbish, sewage or chemicals………… .
A)are all part of the natural environment
***B)can kill aquatic life when they are thrown into the water
C)are the main cause of warm water pollution
D)are by-products of hydroelectric plants
E) have, on occasions, proved to be beneficial to aquatic life

90-The author argues that……….. .
A)there is nothing that can be done to correct thermal pollution
B)water pollution is a fact of life that we must learn to live with
C)tile world would be better off without hydroelectric power stations
D)fish are less affected by the second kind of pollution than by the first
***E)both kinds of pollution are equally bad for the natural environment

The SAT is a a-hour test of both verbal and mathematical abilities which is used as part of the process for evaluating applicants for admission to American universities. In 1995, the College Board, which administers the SAT, re-centred the scoring scale for the test. It did so by re-establishing the original average score of 500 on the 200-800 scale. The scale had not been adjusted since 1941, when it reflected the norm of some 10,000 students, frequently from public schools and applying to the nation's most selective universities. Over the years the average score had shifted below 500 as a larger number of students began taking the test, and verbal and maths scores had ceased to become comparable. Now the scores represent a more diverse university-bound population of about 2 million students.

91-The passage informs us that the SAT test……………. .
A)has ceased to be used by the nation's most selective universities
***B)is one of the tests used to evaluate potential university students
C)is the only criterion used for university acceptance in America
D)can only be used to test either maths or language, but not both
E)has recently evolved into a multi-million-dollar industry in the USA

92- It's mentioned in the Passage that…………….. .
***A)formerly those who entered for the SAT were often from public schools
B)the results of the SAT are no longer important to students
C)the SAT test has become much more difficult over the years
D)the average score on the SAT has remained virtually unchanged since 1941
E)no university applicant has ever got an SAT score of 800

93-The article tells, us that the average score on the SAT ……. .
A)rose dramatically in 1995 because of the number of students taking it
B)can be either 200 or 800 in any given year
C)was achieved by approximately 2 million students in 1995
***D)dropped a bit during the period from 1941 to 1995
E)cannot be computed due to the large numbers used

In the face of advancing Japanese troops during World War II, US and Filipino forces under General Douglas MacArthur abandoned Manila and retreated west to the Bataan Peninsula. Crippled by malaria, weakened from their decision to share their food rations with the civilians, and demoralised after MacArthur's departure for Australia, the surviving defenders surrendered when they became convinced that no outside help would arrive. What followed became known as the Bataan Death March. The Japanese led 55,000 American and Filipino prisoners on a brutal six-day, 120-mile trek to a prison in the Pampanga Province. Each day on the way ended with the slaughter of all prisoners too ill to continue. More than half the captives died in this way and another 25% perished in the camp before the war ended.

94-According to the passage, General MaCArthur………….. .
A)ended the war in the Pampanga prison camp in Bataan
B)ordered his soldiers to march across the Bataan Peninsula
C)suffered from malaria and gave his food to the civilians
***D)had gone to Australia before the soldiers surrendered
E)decided to march to Australia to avoid being captured

95-The passage tells us that the march to Pampanga Province …. .
A)started after the prisoners had tried to escape
***B)ended at a prison camp after nearly a week
C)was led by thousands of Americans and Filipinos
D)cost the lives of 55,000 Americans and Filipinos
E)was stopped when everyone was too ill to go on

96-The author implies that by the end of the war, …………… .
***A)fewer than one-fourth of the original prisoners were still alive
B)only the Filipino prisoners had survived the ordeal
C)the Japanese had murdered all of the captured soldiers
D)the remaining 40,000 soldiers continued to help in the war effort
E)no one had come to help the survivors at the prison camp

New research suggests that among smokers who get lung cancer, women are nearly twice as likely as men to develop the most deadly form of the disease. Experts say that the British study represents the first time scientists have discovered a significant difference between the sexes in the risk of small-cell lung cancer. Virtually always caused by smoking, it is the hardest form of lung cancer to treat successfully. The study showed that women under 65 were 1.7 times more vulnerable than men to small-cell lung cancer, which spreads so rapidly that by the time it is diagnosed, it is usually too late to operate.

97-The most deadly form of lung cancer…………. .
A)is more likely to develop in men than in women
B)accounts for 17 percent of deaths among women under the age of 65
C)is more common in Britain than anywhere else
D)is caused by smoking in rare cases
***E)tends to spread too quickly to be treated by surgery

98-It has only recently been discovered that small-cell lung cancer ……….. .
A)also affects women as frequently as it does men
B)can be successfully treated
C)is the worst type of cancer
***D)is more common among- women than among men
E)can be diagnosed in earlier stages

99-It is stated in the passage that …………… .
A)scientists are hopeful of finding a cure for small-cell lung cancer
B)new research into cancer is good news for anyone suffering from the disease
***C)the chance of overcoming cancer is the lowest for patients with small-cell lung cancer
D)British scientists were the first to discover small-cell lung cancer
E)small-cell lung cancer is diagnosed 1.7 times more effectively in women under

One of the most famous panics in the United States was begun by a radio broadcast. In 1938, CBS radio broadcast a dramatisation of a science fiction novel by H.G. Wells called 'War of the Worlds". It told the story of an invasion from Mars with the Martians landing in New Jersey and taking over New York fifteen minutes later. The story was told in a realistic fashion with the actors playing reporters giving "live" reports from the scene. At the beginning of the broadcast, there was an announcement that the story was fictional, but most people tuned in too late to hear it. As a result, there were traffic jams all over New York and New Jersey as people tried to flee what they thought was a real invasion.

100- According to the passage…………. .
**A)a panic was caused by people believing a fictional radio broadcast
B)H.G. Wells was a famous non-fiction author
C)a reporter named H.G. Wells spread a fictional story to frighten people
D)Martians landed in New Jersey in 1938
E)reporters giving live reports playe4 a trick on people

101-One reason people panicked was that………….. .
***A)the majority of them missed the announcement that the story was fiction
B)New Jersey, which was invaded by Martians, was very close to New York
C)people believed that Martians were cruel and frightening creatures
D)CBS radio was known for its serious documentary programs
E)the television scenes were so realistic that almost anyone would believe them

102-One generalisation we can make from the passage is that … .
A)Martians have the power to take control of New Jersey and New York in just 15 minutes
B)New York and New Jersey often suffer from traffic jams
C)H.G. Wells wrote stories credible enough to take in everyone
D)radio stations often broadcast fictional stories deliberately to cause a panic
***E)sometimes people will believe things no matter how improbable they are

The worst hurricane in memory to hit the south-eastern part of the North Carolina coast was Hurricane Hazel in 1954. This storm destroyed every building on three islands. Apparently, the disaster didn't occupy people's minds for long, as in the decades that followed, beach houses sprang up everywhere, most of which were built by people who had never experienced a major storm. By the time Hurricane Fran struck in 1996, so dense was the development that a storm weaker than Hazel inflicted much greater damage. A man who had his newly renovated beach front home commented that he had had no idea that a storm could simply sweep his house away.

103-After Hurricane Hazel hit the North Carolina coast in 1954, ………… .
A)strict building codes made it impossible to build in coastal areas
B)every building in North Carolina was destroyed
***C)people seemed to forget how bad the destruction had been
D)the president declared a National Disaster
E)Hurricane Fran followed soon after

104-It can be inferred from the passage that the beach houses built after 1954 were……….. .
A)constructed by the native inhabitants of the area
***B)mostly built by newcomers to the area
C)better built than the earlier ones
D)mostly destroyed by Hurricane Hazel
E)able to withstand more powerful storms due to new building technology

105- It is stated in the passage that compared to Hurricane Hazel, Hurricane Fran……….. .
A)inflicted greater damage because it was a much stronger storm
B)was responsible for more deaths because the area was more densely populated
C)was a weaker storm and so caused less damage
D)led to about the same amount of destruction
***E)caused greater destruction even though it was a weaker storm

The prospectors who braved the Canadian winters to find gold in the Yukon and Klondike Rivers experienced the most difficult conditions imaginable. Every man who entered the area had to carry a years supply of food and mining equipment over the steep and frozen mountain passes. In order to do this, each man had to carry 25 kilos of stores about 10 kilometres, leave it there, and return for another load. Therefore to remove all of his stores less than 80 kilometres, each man had to walk nearly 1500 kilometres. It is estimated that of the 100,000 men who set out for the Klondike, fewer than 40,000 actually arrived. Only 4000 ever found gold, and very few of these became rich.

106-It is stated in the passage that ………… .
A)about 40% of the men who tried to find gold in the Klondike became rich
B) only about 4% of the people who set out for the Klondike actually arrived
C) each of the 40,000 men had to walk about 1500 kilometres just to carry 25 kilos of stores
***D)more than 60,000 of the people trying to reach the Klondike failed on the way
E)nearly everyone who reached the Klondike was able to find some gold

107-The conditions around the Yukon and Klondike Rivers were so difficult because ………. .
A)the gold mines were all on the steep and frozen mountain passes
B)each man needed 25 kilos of stores to get him through the winter
C)the area was not big enough to support all of the 100,000 men who set out for the Klondike
****D)of a number of reasons including difficult terrain and harsh weather conditions
E)they were nearly 1500 kilometres away from the nearest store

108- We can conclude from the passage that……….. .
***A)very few of the prospectors actually achieved what they'd aimed for
B)searching for gold in the Canadian winter is the quickest way to get rich
C)it is less difficult to find gold in Canada than in some other places
D)there is still plenty of gold waiting to be found in the Yukon and Klondike Rivers
E)a prospector is someone who lends money to people searching for gold

Contrary to common knowledge, the water, milk and meat of coconuts only begin the list of uses of this versatile tree. The outer husk of the ripe nuts contains fibres that, when separated, can be twisted into twine rope of amazing toughness. It is quite resistant to rot from dampness or seawater. Despite the advent of nails and screws, this rope continues to be widely used for binding together the timbers of houses and the parts of canoes, tools and the like. Expert craftsmen can make sizeable ropes, which, after use, become quite flexible. The inner shell of the ripe nut can be cut and carved into ladles, scrapers, combs and cups and will take a high polish. Furthermore, the sap of the coconut -1 can be fermented to make a pleasant tasting wine, while the fresh sap can be used as food for babies.

109- According to the passage, twine rope………. .
***A)can be used for some of the same functions as nails
B)is the best possible material for making small boats
C)cannot be made into small ropes, but only big ones
D)can easily be damaged if not protected from rain and sea water
E)is sometimes used in the manufacture of polishes

110-We learn from the passage that, despite the many uses of the coconut, it is……… .
***A)better known among people as a source of food
B)not very profitable for the grower
C)very difficult to grow, harvest and process the nut
D)only the experts who know how to use it to the full
E)most commonly used as a material for making ropes

111- It is clear from the passage that…………. .
A)baby food made from coconut palms contains a bit of alcohol
B)wine made from the coconut palm tastes surprisingly like baby food
***C)the same part of the coconut palm is used to make wine and baby food
D)baby food made from the coconut palm has a great nutritive value
E)wine made from the coconut tree tastes better than other types

The central Arctic is an ice mass formed from part of the ocean, whereas the Antarctic is continental. Surrounding the Arctic are land masses which, in most cases, extend southward to the tropics. The Antarctic, on the other hand, is the only continent entirely set off from the rest of the world by great oceans. Furthermore, at some point of man's history, all of the other continents, except Austria, were joined by land bridges. Even Australia had been easy to reach by canoe. However, the only place Antarctica even approaches another continent is the long finger of the Antarctic Peninsula, reaching within 600 miles of Cape Horn, the southernmost tip of South America. In addition to distance, ice and stormy seas kept anyone from seeing this continent until about 1820.

112-The difference between the Arctic and Antarctic is that…………. .
A)the climate in the Arctic is much more likely to be tropical than that in Antarctic regions
***B)the Arctic is frozen water surrounded by land, while the Antarctic is land surrounded by water
C)it is much easier to sail through the Arctic oceans thin the ones around Antarctica
D)the Arctic continent is more easily accessible than the one in the Antarctic region
E)because it's much further north, the Arctic is much colder thin the Antarctic

113-We can conclude that………… .
***A)with the exception of Australia and Antarctica, it used to be possible to walk between the other continents
B)Antarctica used to be connected to South America by a land bridge
C)throughout man's history. canoes have been the most popular means of travelling to Australia
D)until the construction of a bridge connecting it to the mainland, Austria could only be reached by boat
E)the coastline of the Antarctic Peninsula is about six-hundred miles long

114- The passage tells us that…………. .
A)South Americans were the first people to set foot on Antarctica
B)the Antarctic Peninsula is the southernmost point of Antarctica
C)at its nearest point, Antarctica is visible from the southernmost point of South America
***D)Antarctica was discovered in the early nineteenth century
E)the first inhabitants of Australia were early explorers

In order to overcome the limits of the nine-to-five schedule and to grant workers increased independence, thousands of companies have been experimenting with flexible work hour schedules, or flexitime, with flexitime, workers set their own schedules as long as the hours are compatible with company needs and are sufficient to complete assignments. Thus one worker may work from seven to three while another works from ten to six. One variation of flexitime is the four-day work week, in which workers put in four ten-hour days rather than five eight-hour days. When possible, employees are allowed to choose their days off, with many choosing three-day weekends.

115-According to the passage, workers on flexitime………… .
A)are free to work whenever they want
***B)must still complete their work
C)always work four days a week instead of five
D)usually enjoy working the traditional nine-to-five schedule
E)can carry on their work out of the office, if possible

116-The passage states that one advantage of flexitime is…………. .
A)to force workers to complete their assignments on time
B)to compel workers into working ten-hour days
C)to allow a more flexible dress code
***D)to give workers more freedom
E)to make workers on a nine-to-five schedule more efficient

117-The passage tells us that one reason a worker might choose flexitime is………… .
A)to avoid colleagues he or she does not like by working different hours
B)to be able to work longer hours and impress his or her boss
C)to earn more money by working more overtime hours
D)to avoid the rush-hour traffic by commuting at different hours from the majority
***E)to get a longer weekend in return for longer working days

Painting is the application of some coloured pigment to a surface and has developed into an expressive art form. The most common types of paints used today are oil paints and water colours. Most oil painting is done on a prepared canvas or wooden board. Oil paints take several days to dry, which allows the artist to work and rework on the canvas or other surface in the meantime. Water colour painting requires a totally different technique. As the name implies, water is the fluid mixed with the pigments, while paper is the only surface suitable for the paints. Because the water dries quickly into the paper, the work itself has to be done quickly, and it is difficult to correct mistakes. Gouache paints are also water-soluble, but stronger in colour and tone than true water colours.

118-The main focus of the passage is…………. .
A)a history of painting as a type of expressive art form
B)an explanation of why the best artists prefer to use oil paint
C)an explanation of how various paints are manufactured
***D)a brief list of some types of paint and a description of their features
E)an argument for the superiority of water colours in art

119-As is stated in the passage, one feature of oil paint is that…………. .
A)it takes a long time to dry, during which time it can be damaged
B)artists must use it on specially prepared surfaces, not on paper
C)it is generally much easier to clean up than water colours are
***D)images produced with it can be changed if the paint hasn't dried yet
E)true artists prefer using it to the less artistic water col6urs

120-It can be inferred from the passage that gouache paints ……….. .
A)are much more expensive than water colours
***B)are not considered to be true water colours
C)produce longer lasting paintings than water colours
D)take longer to dry than water colours do
E)are used by more artists than water colours are

About 1500 years ago, King Vaktang Gorgasali shot a peacock while hunting in the dense forests of the Kura Valley. When he bent down to pick the bird up, he felt the warmth of a hot spring on his fingers. At once, he announced that this would be the, site of his new city, which he named Thilisi, a word meaning "warm" in the Georgian language. Later Thilisi replaced Mtskheta as the country's capital. Since then, Thilisi has become the economic and cultural centre of Georgia. It has an area of 350 square kilometres and a population of 1.5 million, which is comprised mainly of native Georgians with a number of other peoples, such as Russians, Armenians and Azeri Turks, represented.

121-From the passage, we can determine that………. .
A)the hot springs of Thilisi have since cooled
B)the Georgian language has changed greatly
C)Mtskheta had to be destroyed to build Thilisi
D)all ancient kings liked hunting and hot springs
***E)Thilisi was built some time around 500 AD

122- The passage states that Mtskheta…………. .
***A)was the capital Of Georgia before Thilisi
B)has never been such a major city as Thilisi
C)has no hot springs or dense forests
D)is generally colder than Thilisi
E)was the name given later to Thilisi

123-The author states that within the population of Thilisi, ………… .
A)the number of native Georgiana is 1.5 million
B)there are fewer natives than the outsiders
***C)there are several ethnic minorities
D)Azeri Turks form the greatest portion
E)Georgians and Russians are the biggest minorities

An orchestra is a fairly large ensemble of musical instrumentalists. The orchestra, and the history of orchestral music, is considered to have started with the operas of Claude Monteverdi. Its familiar composition, divided into four basic groups of instruments - strings, woodwind, brass and percussion - dates from the second half of the 18th century and is especially connected with the work of Joseph Haydn. The orchestra grew dramatically in size during the 19th century, from an ensemble of 35 players to a company of well over 100. During the same period, the composition of orchestral music and the particular use made of individual instruments or groups of them, increasingly became the hallmark of a composer's individual style.

124-It's mentioned in the passage that..……….. .
A)Joseph Haydn was a much better composer than Claude Monteverdi
B)opera is an art form that is highly superior to orchestral music
***C)Monteverdi's operas are regarded as the first examples of orchestral music
D)the size of orchestras has grown to include too many instruments
E)the larger the orchestra, the better the music it will produce

125- We learn from the passage that individual instruments in orchestras……….. .
A)are all made of either wood or some type of ****l
B)were much larger in the 19th century than in the 18th
C)were primarily designed by the composer Haydn
D)always appear in groups of either 35 or 100
***E)can be mainly classified into four different types

126- It may be assumed from the information in the passage that………. .
A)music performed with 100 players is no better than that performed with 35
***B)composers in the 19th century were known for their characteristic styles
C)it 18 difficult to determine the composer of a piece of music without being told
D)large groups of composers worked together on most 19th century projects
E)there was little variation in the style of music produced in the 19th century

This summer Britons are predicted to spend £6 billion on package holidays. According to a new survey, the happiest holiday-makers are those who book with small, specialist companies. The survey suggests that choosing the right tour company may be more important than choosing the right resort or hotel. So, how can you make sure you end up with the sort of holiday you had in mind? If your budget is tight, work out exactly what you can afford. Then, find a travel agent who has time to listen to your requirements. This can be hard though, as many large high street chains set sales targets for heir staff, and may even limit the amount of time employees spend per customer.

127-The recent survey mentioned in the passage shows that…………… .
***A)small travel agencies usually satisfy their customers better
B)British people spend £6 billion on package holidays annually
C)most British people book their holidays through small travel agencies
D)luxurious holiday resorts are rarely preferred
E)the staff at travel agencies deal with customers efficiently

128-Following the advice in the passage, if you want to have a low-budget holiday, ……….. .
A)it would be a good idea to go on a working holiday
B)make sure that you choose an excellent resort
C)decide exactly what you want before approaching an agency
D)a package holiday would be the best option
***E)you should plan your finances carefully

129-The author warns that you may have difficulty in finding a travel agent who will ……….. .
A)offer you a cheap holiday
B)give you a discount on the price
***C)listen to you at length
D)offer decent holidays at lower prices
E)offer a wide variety of package holidays

Scientists have warned that the Great Barrier Reef, meant to be one of the most strictly protected natural wonders of the world, is dying, and this is because of the western appetite for prawn cocktails, and a combination of other human activities, including tourism and oil mining. The Australian Conservation Foundation has said that the reef could soon be listed as "endangered". It is one of the world's richest natural sites, with more than 400 species of coral and 1,500 fish species. Every living thing in the 140,000-square-rnile park is extremely sensitive to disturbance. The scientists' report reveals that large-scale prawn fishing - both illegal and licensed - has in a few years reduced seabed animals by more than half. For every tonne of prawns caught, up to 10 tonnes of marine life is being sacrificed.

130-One can understand from the passage that the Great Barrier Reef…………. .
A)has more regulations than any other natural wonder in the world
***B)is not being as carefully protected as it ought to be
C)houses many species that are listed endangered
D)is not open to tourists unless they have a special permit
E)has no regulations governing activity in the area

131-The Australian Conservation Foundation………. .
***A)is concerned about the future of the reef
B)only allows one tonne of prawns to be caught annually
C)sponsors tourism and mining in the area
D)has declared the reef to be an endangered site
E)has classified various species in the area as endangered

132-The author believes that prawn fishing………… .
A)should be restricted to ten tonnes per year
B)is the only means for the locals to earn their living
C)only benefits the rich West
***D)is disturbing the balance of nature in the area
E)is still carried out with primitive methods

All contact lenses are now made of plastic, but hard and soft varieties are available. The newer and more expensive soft lenses can be bent and will return to their original shape. Made of water-absorbing plastic, they cause very little discomfort and can be worn for as short or as long a period as you like. Lenses of hard plastic do cause discomfort during the adjustment period and must be worn regularly so that another break-in period isn't necessary. However, vision through soft contacts isn't as good as through hard contacts. Another disadvantage of soft lenses is their tendency to absorb eye secretions and mists from hair spray, room deodorant and the like.

133-One advantage soft contact lenses have over hard ones is that they………… .
A)are made of natural products
***B)are completely flexible
C)correct short-sightedness
D)aren't as expensive
E)come in two varieties

134-We learn from the passage that hard plastic lenses………. .
A)are water absorbent
B)must not be worn too often
***C)are initially uncomfortable
D)may break if dropped
E)do not provide clear vision

135-We can conclude from the passage that a person wearing soft plastic lenses………… .
A)ought to use them for short periods
B)has to get them adjusted by the optician
C)won't have any difficulty seeing clearly
***D)should avoid using aerosol sprays
E)doesn't need to have them checked frequently

Nowhere else in Italy is the art of making pasta so perfected as in Emilia. An ordinary housewife, in half an hour, can make enough taglierini, a kind of pasta, for a dozen people. With eggs and flour and just a drop of water she makes the dough. With a long rolling pin, she presses it out into circular sheets, paper thin. She then cuts it into ribbons a quarter of an inch in width. In Rome this pasta is called fettucfrie, and is boiled and drained like spaghetti, and served swimming in butter and melted cheese. In Emilia, they prefer it served with a sauce of meat, tomato, herbs and mushrooms. In Genoa, the same pasta, made in exactly the same way, is served al pesto - with an uncooked sauce of garlic, herbs and olive oil.

136-Housewives in Emilia …………. .
A)usually make the pasta special to their town
B)make the most economical pasta in Italy
C)usually cook for twelve or more people
D)make most of the pasta produced in Italy
***E)are the best at making pasta in Italy

137- Clearly, in Rome, people ………….. .
A) prefer fettucirte to taglierini
***B)enjoy eating pasta with dairy products
C)would rather eat spaghetti than jettucihe
D)like to eat pasta on the riverbanks
E)cook fettucine in butter, not in water

138-From what the author says about taglierini and al pesto, we can understand that……….. .
A)they are cooked in different ways
B) the people in Genoa eat much less pasta
C)the Genoans generally use more herbs in cooking
***D)they are the same pasta with different names
E)the people from Emilia like a thicker sauce

Trinity College, or Dublin University, in the Republic of Ireland, dates from the sixteenth century. However, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, many Irish students went abroad, to Italy, Spain and France, to be educated, as Catholics, forming the majority of the population were forbidden to have schools. During that time in Ireland, many teachers operated outside the law. Known as Hedge Shoolmasters, they taught their pupils by the hedgerows in summer and in hillside huts in winter due to a lack of buildings of their own. They managed to teach Latin and Greek well, Without texts, masters and pupils had to rely on memory. Not until the nineteenth century did these banned 'hedge' schools disappear, when a system of public education was finally approved by the British Government.

139- The passage tells us that Ireland……….. .
A)became a republic in the 16th century
B)did not value education until the 19th century
C)was an independent state in the 18th century
***D)was a predominantly Catholic state
E)didn't have any schools until the 19th century

140- Hedge Schoolmasters…………. .
***A)had to teach secretly, as what they were doing was illegal
B)provided the only legal education for Catholics at that time
C)worked for one of the departments of Trinity College
D)taught in order to raise money for school buildings
E)began their work in Ireland in the 16th century

141-One difficulty that Hedge Schoolmasters and their pupil were faced with was that………… .
A)the school masters weren’t properly trained
B)the students had to study Latin and Greek
***C)they didn't have any school books
D)the masters and pupils spoke different languages
E)there were not enough teachers for all the students

An average child of 5 years old uses only 1,500 of the 150,000 "dictionary" words that a modern language contains. But this small treasury is used very intensively, by him during the years of learning, at the rate of about 1,000 words an hour, or from 7,000 to 15,000 words each day for an active child. School quickly increases his vocabulary, but leaves him with less opportunity for using it. At 10 years old, his treasury amounts to 7,000 words, of which about 30% are used actively -the remainder is seldom or never used- and in an hour he will use about 700 words. By the time he enters university, his word inventory will have grown to 20.000, and on graduation to 60.000, but of these only 10%-20%will be in active use.

142-According to the passage, in general, a 5-year old-child………….. .
A)has an enormous, vocabulary for his age
B)can learn 1.000 words in an hour
C)knows, but doesn’t use, about 150~000 words
D)learns about 7.000 to 15.000 words each day
***E)uses only one percent of avai1able words

143-The passage tells us that when a child goes to school, ……………. .
A)the amount of vocabulary he knows, and his usage of it, increase considerably
B)he is able to use more than half of the words found in a standard dictionary
***C)he learns many words, but uses a smaller percentage of them than before
D)he finds more opportunity to use his ,vocabulary
E)he starts using about 7.000 words daily

144- An average university student ………………… .
A)spends at least fifteen hours of a day listening or speaking
B)uses about 7,000 words, though he knows almost all the vocabulary
C)can only use half of the words he knows in everyday life
***D)graduates with less than half of the vocabulary of his mother tongue
E)can actively use most of the words he has learnt during education

In the Pacific Ocean, over 4000 kilometres from the coast of Chile, the closest mainland, is a tiny island named Easter Island that amazed the first seafarers to land there in the 18tr century. What surprised them were the hundreds of colossal statues scattered all over the island. They were the remains of massive sculptures that had been cut from the volcanic mountains. No one has ever been able to explain why these statues were built. They are between ten and twenty metres high and weigh up to fifty tonnes. Even now, scientists are unable to explain how such huge monuments were constructed and moved about on such a remote island.

145-The most extraordinary thing about Easter bland is…. .
***A)the many huge stone images found on the island
B)the fact that it was not until the 18th century that the first seafarers went there
C)the existence of volcanic mountains there
D)its location nearly 4000 kilometres from Chile
E)the 4000 year old mountains that were discovered in the 18th century

146-The passage tells us that………….. .
A)there were no people on the island until the 18th century
B)there are between ten and twenty statues on the island
***C)the reason for the construction of the statues is not understood
D)there are many active volcanoes on Easter Island
E)seamen in the 18th century often made up unlikely stories

147-It is mentioned in the passage that …………. .
A)the first seafarers to land on the island were very skilful
B)the statues are situated in the most remote part of the island
C)the civilisation of Easter Island was destroyed by a volcanic eruption
D)the people who made the statues were excellent engineers
***E)Easter Island is a long way from the nearest continent

It is ironic that the name of such a corrupt and immoral politician as John Montagu, the fourth Earl of Sandwich, has come down to us, while the names of some of his more honest colleagues are forgotten. He held several important positions in the 18th century, most notoriously as First Lord of the Admiralty. He is thought to have stolen from the Admiralty budget, and to have purchased inferior equipment for the navy at a profit to himself, causing the British Navy serious problems at sea. But of course what he is most remembered for is the invention of the "sandwich". A confirmed gambler, he is thought to have asked for slices of meat to be put between two pieces of bread and brought to him at the gaming table, go that eating would not cause him to waste any gambling time.

148-According to the passage, the "sandwich" ……………. .
A)is a special way of gambling invented by John Montagu
B)was invented in England, but is now most popular in the United States
C)was John Montagu's favourite meat dish he ate with his gambling colleagues
D)was the secret code John Montagu and some other corrupt politicians used
***E)was invented by John Montagu as a way to be able to eat while gambling

149-Some of the British Navy's problems in the 18th century resulted from………… .
A)the gambling habit of the fourth Earl of Sandwich
B)the corruption and immorality of the manufacturers
C)the dismissal of the honest admirals of the time from the navy
***D)the bad equipment John Montagu bought for the navy
E)the economic depression the country was suffering in general

150-The author finds it ironic that John Montagu, an immoral person, ………….. .
A)was able to hold such important positions in the navy
***B)is still remembered today. but some of his more honest contemporaries aren't
C)was awarded by the British Navy for his admirable work
D)was held responsible for the increase in gambling in the country
E)had become one of the four important figures of the region of Sandwich

Although the Kilim-Ijim forest in Oku, Cameroon, lies only about six degrees north of the Equator, at an elevation of over 2,500 metres, it has a pleasant climate. After the stifling humidity of the country's main city, Douala, this highland area feels decidedly cool. Kilim-Ijim is the highest and largest forest left in West Africa, with fifteen bird species found only in this mountain area of Cameroon. One, a dazzlingly beautiful bird called the turaco, is found nowhere else on the Earth. Although the turaco is confined almost entirely to the 200,000 hectares of the Kilim-Ijim area, it is not difficult to locate it. From dawn to dusk, its call can be heard. Because of this, the local people call the turaco the timekeeper, announcing the start and end of each working day in the fields.

151-The author mentions that the Killm-Ijim forest has a nice climate………… .
A)though it is not as good as the climate in Douala
B)even though it can be really quite cold there
***C)despite the fact that it is near the Equator
D)because it is in a northerly area of Cameroon
E)although it is not as cool as it is in Douala

152-The turaco………. .
***A)is only found in the KiIim-ljim forest
B) is not easy to find in the 200,000 hectares of the forest
C)is the only bird species which is native to Cameroon
D)has fifteen different varieties found only in the Kilim-Ijim forest
E)can be found throughout Cameroon, but nowhere else

153-The turaco is known as the timekeeper because…… .
A)it calls twice a day - at sunrise and at sunset
***B)its call is heard in the fields from the start till the end of a work day
C)it makes a noise that sounds like a clock
D)its loud, distinctive cry can be heard day and night
E)it calls as it goes to sleep at dawn and again at dusk, when it wakes up

Lacrosse is the national game of Canada and was developed there around 1850, and later in the US in 1877, from the centuries old Indian baggataway, played by rival tribes with teams numbering thousands. The name, French for "the crook," is from the stick used. The modem game is played on a field 100 by 60 metres, with caged goals about two metres square. A team consists of ten players: defence men, midfield players, attack players and a goalkeeper. The object is to score goals by carrying, throwing or batting a sponge rubber ball with the stick, which has a 25-centimetre net at the end. Only the goalkeeper may touch the ball with his hands, and the game is divided into four quarters of 15 minutes each.

154-According to the passage, a lacrosse game………… .
A)stimulates feelings of hatred between the sides
B)allows the players to handle the ball with hands
C)is only popular among the Indians living in Canada
D)requires the teams to employ a lot of players
***E)is played for sixty minutes in four sections

155-We learn from the passage that today, lacrosse is played……… .
A)all over the world and is very popular
B) on a field many times the size of a football pitch
***C)by teams of ten players in four distinct positions
D)by people riding horses and carrying sticks
E)by teams of thousands of people at the same time

156-The passage tells us that lacrosse………… .
***A)in its present form dates from the mid-nineteenth century
B)was played enthusiastically by the Indian tribe of Baggataway
C)used to mean a declaration of war in the Indian traditions
D)is only played in Canada, where it's the national game
E)is a French game developed by crooks and warriors

What have recently been found in Egypt could be the earliest known writings. The clay tablets have been carbon dated to between 3300 BC and 3200 BC. This discovery will upset the belief commonly held by hi8toriaas that the first people to write were the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, in about 3000 BC. Most of the tablets were found in the tomb of a king called Scorpion, south of Cairo. The writings in the form of line drawings of animals, plants and mountains are on clay tablets barely bigger than postage stamps. They have been deciphered as records of linen and oil delivered to King Scorpion I. Thus it seems that man's first writings were not a creative outpouring but the result of economics: when the chieftains expanded their areas of control, they needed to keep a record of taxes, paid in the form of goods
157-According to the passage, the discovery of the clay tablets in Egypt………. .
A)has upset a great many historians interested in this area
B)has proved that the Sumerians were the first to write
C)apparently took place in approximately 3000 BC
***D)will change the current understanding of the history of writing
E)has not yet been officially confirmed by authorities

158-The clay tablets mentioned in the passage…………… .
A)were used as ancient forms of postage stamps
B)are the earliest examples we have of Egyptian art
***C)reveals some information about the economic dealings of ancient Egyptians
D)were specially created to be buried with King Scorpion
E)originally belonged to the Sumerians of Mesopotamia

159- From this discovery, it appears that ………… .
A)these tablets were a form of ancient money
B)the tablets were bartered in exchange for oil
C)King Scorpion was one of the first merchants
D)only the kings had the authority to keep written records of events
***E)the first writing was for the purpose of recording economic transactions

According to local legend, the Russian Mikhail Bukanin entered a Prague cafe in 1848 and ordered tea. When the owner said that he'd never heard of the drink Bukanin marched into the kitchen and made the city's first cup of tea. Eighty years later, there were an estimated 150 tea-houses in Prague, but the culture died out under the Communist regime. Today's tea-houses are mostly a 1990s' phenomenon. Partly a reaction to the smoke-filled atmosphere of the Czech pub, and partly a reaction against the multinational, fast food culture that has recently arrived in Prague, tea-houses are non-smoking, peaceful places to enjoy a quiet cup of tea and relax. The tea drinking is taken very seriously, and many of the tea-houses stock a huge array of different kinds of tea.

160-Legend tells that …………… .
A)tea was forbidden in Prague until the year 1848
B)eating and drinking habits of the Czechs were greatly affected by the Russians'
C)the Czechs used to drink tea themselves but did not offer it to their guests
***D)a Russian introduced tea to the people of Prague
E)the first cafe in Prague serving tea was started by a foreigner

161- We can deduce from the passage that………….. .
***A)today's tea-houses in Prague have generally been opened in the last ten years
B)approximately 150 tea-houses have been opened in Prague since the 1920s
C)the original tea-houses have lost a lot of business to pubs and restaurants
D)the citizens of Prague don't really like drinking tea in public places
E)the tea-houses in Prague have been in continuous existence for over 80 years

162-We learn from the passage that Prague tea-houses …………. .
A)do not encourage their customers to laugh and Joke
B)keep a large samovar of tea boiling all the time
C)sell fast food as well as the tea they are famed for
***D)offer many varieties of the beverage they serve
E)were, in general, pubs before they became tea-houses

The development of geology owes much to the work of non-professional observers. In no other science, with the possible exceptions of astronomy and archaeology, has the keen amateur participated so actively or contributed so much. This is mainly because experimental methods of investigation involving complicated apparatus typical of chemistry, physics and biology are of only limited use in geology, which results from the fact that geological processes work slowly and depend on factors beyond human control. The advance of geological knowledge has depended on simple observations, patiently gathered, of the outcrops of rocks, their thicknesses, their angles and their fossil content.

163-The purpose of the passage is to explain…………….. .
A)some experimental methods of geological investigation
***B)why geology is a science suitable for enthusiasts' contribution
C)gradual developments in the field of geology over the years
D)why it is so difficult to gather geological information
E)how experts analyse geological data gathered in the field

164-It is clear from the passage that complex equipment for geological investigation………… .
A)is vital to almost every part of the geologist's work
B)is of no use whatsoever in the development of geology
C)may be easily mastered and used by the amateur
***D)only plays a small part in the field of geology
E)is much the same as that used in other scientific fields

165-The author informs us that because of the way geological processes take place, …………. .
A)humans will never really understand how geology works
B)sophisticated equipment is vital to the geologist's work
C)several other sciences can be useful to the study of geology
***D)data needs to be gathered over a long period of time
E)it takes a long time to train in order to become a geologist

In Memphis, Tennessee, the unofficial capital of the Mississippi Delta, many people, black and white, have always been drawn to the blues music. It is this racial cross-over that helped inspire Memphis's most famous adopted son, Elvis Presley, to fuse black blues and white country and gospel music into rock'n'roll. Whereas rock'n'rol became universally popular, very few black blues musicians gained commercial success, and the blues remained no more than a side-show, appreciated mainly by the poor blacks who created it in the first place. Surprisingly though, it was white rock groups from Britain, particularly the Rolling Stones, who popularised the great American blues guitarists and singers by acknowledging their debt to them.

166-According to the passage, rock'n'roll ………….. .
***A)is a combination of black and white music
B)helped to inspire Elvis Presley
C)has never been appreciated by the black population
D)has always been a side-show
E)is most popular among poor blacks

167-The author tells us that rock'n'roll……………. .
A)has never been as popular as the blues
B)achieved more popularity than the blues
C)became popular owing to blues musicians
***D)became most famous in Memphis, the capital of Mississippi
E)is better sung by whites than blacks

168-The author finds it surprising that…………… .
A)the Rolling Stones became so famous outside Britain
B)Elvis Presley gained world fame as a rock'n'rol singer
***C)blues musicians were brought to public attention by white British rock groups
D)blacks and whites in Memphis could get along so peacefully
E)the Mississippi Delta has produced so many famed musicians, both black and white

Of the countries of Latin America, none has had a more melancholy history than Paraguay. For nearly 180 years, from 1811, when the country became independent from Spain, it had a very succession of dictators, some bad, some very bad. One allowed no newspapers or schools. Another claimed half of the country for himself. When the last one was overthrown in 1989, it was assumed that Andres Rodriguez, the general who organised the coup against his old master, would be a dictator too. To many people's astonishment, starting a democratic movement, he freed political prisoners, ended the ban on opposition political parties, lifted newspaper censorship, and successfully stood for president in what was acclaimed as the cleanest dirty election in the country’s history.

169-It is stated in the passage that Paraguay………… .
A)was ruled by decent, fair-minded leaders only for a short period
***B)has suffered a series of unworthy dictators during its history
C)is still affected by the traditions of the colonial period
D)has never had enough newspapers or schools for its population
E)had its worst times during the rule of the dictator Andres Rodriguez

170-The most surprising thing about General Andres Rodriguez is that he …………. .
A)was a hero of the independence movement, which ended in 1811
B) was overthrown by a dictator in 1989
C)became a dictator exactly like his predecessors
D)claimed about half the country as his own personal property
***E)introduced democracy even though he came to power in a coup

171-The passage implies that …………….
A)all of the countries of Latin America have had a sad history
B)the most recent election in Paraguay w~ completely free and fair
C)Paraguay's first ever elections took place under Andres Rodriguez
***D)there has never been a completely free and fair election in Paraguay
E)Paraguay remained under the influence of Spain even after independence

Britain's Andy Green, piloting what looked like a wingless jet plane, became the first man in history to break the sound barrier on land in October, 1997. The car is powered by two jet engines, which develop a thrust *****alent to that of 1000 Ford Escort cars. Though the pilot, the vehicle and the team are all British, the feat was accomplished in the Black Rock Desert of Nevada, USA, because it is the flattest usable surface on the Earth. Coating his ten-tonne vehicle toward the legendary Mach 1, the measure used for aircraft flying at the speed of sound, which is 750 mph. Green culminated the two-minute, 13-mile run with a supersonic spurt that sent him over the 760 mph mark for almost 60 seconds.

172-‘Match 1’ in the passage refers to………….. .
***A)a unit of measure for supersonic speed
B)an extremely powerful Jet engine
C)the name of the vehicle which broke the sound barrier
D) a spot in the Black Rock Desert
E) a wingless jet

173-It is stated in the passage that…………… .
A)1000 cars took part in the attempt to break the sound barrier
B)the sound barrier can only be broken by aircraft
C)flight over the speed of sound is called supersonic
D)a jet plane without wings has broken the sound barrier on land
***E)a British team broke the sound barrier on land in the USA

174-We learn from the passage that before October, 1997, ……….. .
A)it used to take 13 miles to reach the speed of sound
B)the engines of 1000 Ford escorts were used for supersonic craft
C)Andy Green had already travelled at over the speed of sound for one minute
***D)no one had gone faster than the speed of sound on land
E)a few other speed tests had been carried out in the Black Rock Desert

The man responsible for greatly reducing the suffering resulting from surgery was Joseph Lister, who was born in 1827. In 1886 he made the discovery that wound infections following surgery were due to bacteria, and he began to use carbolic acid in an attempt to destroy the bacteria in the air around the operating table. Clean, sterile operating theatres as we know them were unfamiliar in Lister's day, and he was the first surgeon to realise the importance of antisepsis - killing the bacteria in and around the incision that is necessary for the operation. It was his pioneering work with antiseptics which led to the strict routines which surround modern operating theatres, where surgical instruments are sterilised before use, and all the theatre staff have to "scrub up" and wear sterilised gloves and clothing.

175-Before Joseph Lister's discoveries, …………. .
***A)clean, sterile operating theatres were unknown
B)there was an inefficient method of sterilisation
C)theatre staff followed strict preparation routines
D) surgery was always very dangerous
E) nobody took his theories seriously

176-We learn from the passage that………….. .
***A)the sterile conditions in a modern operating theatre are the result of Lister's work
B)surgery includes danger despite all precautions
C)doctors had long suspected the importance of antisepsis
D)incisions are not necessary for minor operations
E)Joseph Lister was the greatest surgeon of his time

177-The passage mainly deals with………. .
A)the type of bacteria which cause infections
B)why it is important for everyone in an operating theatre to be clean
***C)how Joseph Lister changed the course of surgery with his discoveries
D)how sterilised conditions reduced the numbers of post-operation deaths
E)the use of carbolic acid in destroying bacteria

In recent years, a whole new generation of cargo vessels have begun sailing the oceans of the world at speeds that in the past were confined to fast passenger liners. They are known as container ships, monsters with powerful engines developing up to 90,000 horse power. These ships are primarily important due to the fact that the container method of transporting goods has revolutionised maritime cargo carrying because of the speed at which they can be loaded and unloaded when they arrive at a port specially equipped to handle the containers. These containers look like giant building blocks and are made to a standard size.

178-The main advantage of container ships is that they are……… .
A)bigger than other ships
B)as comfortable as fast ocean liners
C)able to compete with fast ocean liners
***D)loaded and unloaded extremely fast
E)the most recent invention of mankind

179-It is stated in the passage that container ships ……….. .
A)are the fastest ships in the world
B)can travel so fast because they are loaded with standard size containers
C)have virtually replaced passenger liners
D)are described as "monsters" because they are ugly
***E)have recently begun sailing the oceans

180-We learn from the passage that…………….. .
A)container vessels come in all sizes
B)container vessels have been around for as long as passenger liners
C)passenger liners still have a number of important advantages over container
D)because containers are of a standard size, they can be used as building blocks
***E)container vessels can only be loaded and unloaded at specially equipped ports

The word alphabet is made up from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet - alpha and beta - and describes any group of symbols intended to represent the sounds used in speech. The letters of an alphabet can be assembled in thousands of different combinations to form words, and are therefore much more flexible than other symbols, such as pictograms or ideograms each of which can only stand for one particular object or idea. The origin of alphabets is obscure. Some scholars believe that the first true alphabets developed from Egyptian Hieroglyphics; others contend that the cuneiform scripts of the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians hold the key.

181-The author tell us that an alphabet is…………. .
A)two Greek letters, alpha and beta
B)a group of meaningless symbols
***C)a group of signs that stand for vocal sounds
D)the sounds used when we speak
E)a combination of pictograms and ideograms

182-It is clear from the passage that alphabets are well-suited for writing because......... .
***A)they are not as rigid as other symbolic systems
B)their letters represent specific words or ideas
C)they derive from ancient hieroglyphics
D)they can have thousands of different letters
E) they are easy to learn for any member of the community

183-It's mentioned in the passage that academics disagree about........... .
A)the disadvantages of alphabets
B)Egyptian Hieroglyphics
C)pictograms and ideograms
D)the key to cuneiform scripts
***E)how alphabets originated

India, one of the poorest countries in the world. has the most HIV positive citizens, an estimated 4 million people. However, it is estimated that less than 1 percent of those living with HIV in India can afford the medication; about 20 pills of various types which has become known as the "AID cocktail". Indigenous production of drugs which will eliminate the cost of import, and perhaps even development of a vaccine may be the only way for India to combat AIDS But costs remain high, even though an Indian company has begun to produce some of the treatment drugs in India.

184-It is stated in the passage that……… .
A)4 million people in India are taking medication for HIV
B)none of the HIV medication is produced in India
C)HIV positive Indians may have got the disease at cocktail parties
D)if the HIV medication were a little cheaper, everyone would be able to afford it
***E)there is no country in the world with more HIV positive citizens than India

185-The "AIDS cocktail"........ .
A)is widely available and inexpensive
B)is produced in India by an Indian company
C)is taken by all HIV positive Indians every day
***D)consists of about 20 different kinds of medicine
E)was devised, by an Indian doctor to combat AIDS

186-The word 'indigenous" in the passage probably means......………. .
A)inexpensive ***B)local
C)imported D)convenient E)efficient

US citizens are legally permitted to arrive in the Netherlands as tourists, 'and then look for work while they're there. However, nobody can work legally in the Netherlands, without a social-fiscal, SOFI, number: yet, the Tax Office won't issue a SOFI number to non-EU nationals without a residence permit, and the Aliens' Police won't issue the permit to anyone without a SOFI number. These regulations are designed to make things difficult, but there do seem to be ways around them. If you can find an employer who will give both the Tax Office and the Aliens' Police a written statement to say that you alone are the right person to do the job, you may be granted a residence permit and a SOFI number. Otherwise, apart from marrying a Dutch citizen, there is little you can do legally to establish yourself there.

187-An American who wishes to week in the Netherlands………….. .
***A)is allowed to seek employment while on holiday in the country
B)must get a written statement from the Tax Office to give to his employer
C)must arrange all of the details before leaving the United States
D)should arrive there with a residence permit and a SOFI number
E)is required to register with the Tax Office upon arrival

188-The author suggests that for an American to have any hope of securing a residence permit, you need…… . A)to be a non-EU national
B)to open your own business there
***C)something in writing from an employee
D)to have Dutch ancestors
E)a friend in the Dutch Aliens' Police

189-From the information given in the passage, it appears that…………. .
A)it is illegal for an American without a SOFI number to marry a Dutch citizen
B)an American wishing to marry a Dutch citizen cannot do so within the Netherlands
C)being married to a Dutch citizen doesn't help an American who wants to work in Holland
***D)marrying a Dutch citizen increases an American’s chances of being allowed to work in Holland
E)it is not legal for an American to get married to a Dutch citizen unless he's got a job in Holland

Many experiments have suggested that a child who has watched a violent video sequence is more likely to engage in aggressive acts than one who has not. According to one study, a preference for violent TV shows is a more accurate indicator of aggression than socio-economic background, family relationships, IQ, or any other single factor. Though it is difficult to say which comes first, an aggressive personality or a preference for violent shows, the relationship is certainly valid. A steady diet of TV violence can also make children numb to reality. One eleven-year-old was quoted as saying that he had seen so many assaults and murders on the screen that if he saw someone really get killed, it would not bother him.

190-According to the study mentioned in the passage, the most likely people to be aggressive are…….. .
A)those with violent family relationships
B)people with low IQ's
C)those who are numb to reality
***D)people who watch too much violence on TV
E)those from poor families

191-The passage states that socio-economic background………… .
***A)is less important than a taste for violent TV shows as an indicator of an aggressive personality
B)is more important than family relationships or IQ in evaluating a violent personality
C)leads to a preference for violent 'Iv programmes
D)is the most important single factor in predicting aggressive behaviour
E) can make people indifferent to reality

192-The anther states that watching a large number of violent TV shows…….. .
A)may be an indicator of violent family relationships
***B)can make a child insensitive to real life
C)makes children want to see people get killed
D)Is one of the causes of a poor socio-economic background
E)is related to a person's IQ

Amphibious vehicles, those that can move on both land and water, have been in use for a number of years. However, while most of them are quite fast on land, they move quite slowly when they are functioning as boats. The only truly amphibious vehicle that can move with equal ease on both land and water, is the Hovercraft. A Hovercraft actually travels on an air cushion produced by a large fan which blows air downwards between the body of the vehicle and the water or the ground. This lifts up the craft. Because the Hovercraft floats on the air cushion, there is no contact between the craft and the surface below. This allows it to travel over flat or rough ground, or water.

193-The passage tells us that amphibious vehicles........ .
A)are not capable of travelling efficiently on water
B)are the result of the very latest technology
C)can also function as aeroplanes in certain situations
***D)are able to travel on water as well as on land
E)are still in the early stages of development

194- The passage explains…………. .
A)why the Hovercraft is more efficient ~n water than on land
B)the system which enables all amphibious vehicles to function as boats
***C)that the Hovercraft can travel over various surfaces because it does not touch them
D)the best method by which the inefficient amphibious vehicles can be improved
E)that the Hovercraft is not truly an amphibious vehicle

195- According to the passage, of all amphibious vehicles, only the Hovercraft……… .
A)offers the passengers seats supported with cushions
***B)operates with equal efficiency on both land and sea
C)has a large fan which keeps the engine cool
D)has become popularly known
E)requires smooth ground or a calm sea

The Rhine is a European river which rises in the Swiss Alps and flows northward for a distance of 1320 kilometres, entering the North Sea just south of the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It is navigable all the way from the sea to Basle, Switzerland, and for this reason is of great commercial importance, serving the industrial region of Ruhr and such inland ports as Cologne, Manheim and Strasbourg. It is connected by canal with the Danube and the Rhone Its most famous stretch is the Rhine Gorge, the steep sides being given over to vineyards. Politically, too, the Rhine has played a big part in European history, providing a natural frontier between French speaking people to the west and Germanic peoples to the east.

196-It is stated in the passage that the industrial importance of the Rhine………. .
***A)stems from its role as a link between Switzerland and the sea
B)comes from its length of more than a thousand kilometres
C)is a direct result of its rising in the Alps in Switzerland
D)is due mainly to the river's political significance
E)has been lessened in recent years because of failed vineyards

197-We understand from the passage that, the Danube and the Rhone……….. .
A)have, over the years, lessened the commercial importance of the Rhine
B)flow through more countries than does the Rhine
C)are of greater significance for Europe than the Rhine
D)flow into the same sea as the Rhine
***E)are not connected with the Rhine naturally but artificially

198-Apart from being a transportation route, the Rhine……….. .
A)contributes to the tourist industry in the Ruhr region
B)is seen by the Dutch as a link to the east
C)provides natural beauty for the local people
***D)serves as a political barrier as well
E)has no other important function

Herodotus was a Greek historian born in Halicarnassus four years before the battle of Thermopylae. He is believed to have been exiled in his later life because of his opposition to the tyrant Lygdamis. He spent much time on Samos, thereafter travelling in the Persian Empire, Scythia and Egypt, observing with fascination the local customs and beliefs. He lived some time in Athens and travelled as an Athenian colonist to Thurli, in Italy, where he is supposed to have spent the rest of his life writing The Persian Wars, earning the title of Father of History from Caesar. This 9-book work is an inquiry into the origins of, and a description of, the Persian invasions of Greece. The first 6 books tell of the customs, geography and history of the combatants and their neighbours; the last three treat the war itself.

199- The passage suggests that Herodotus…………. .
A)made a fortune from the sale of his books
***B)is one of the earliest historical writers
C)did not actually visit the places he wrote about
D)played a major role in the history of the Persian Empire
E)could speak Persian, Arabic and Scythian

200-It can be inferred from the passage that during the battle of Termophylae, Herodotus………. .
A)took detailed notes and did not fight
B)attacked the evil king Lygdamis
***C)was too young to have played a role
D)lost his father through a Persian arrow
E)was assisting the enemy Persian army

201-The author tells us that Herodotus died……….. .
A)having completed only 6 of a planned 9-book collection
B)while paying a visit to Caesar in Italy
C)before he could visit his own country
D)in a battle in the Persian War
***E)in the Athenian colony of Thuril

Vitamin C occurs most abundantly in oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and raw tomatoes and cabbage. Several other fruits and vegetables, including potatoes, contain lesser amounts. It is, however, easily destroyed by cooking. vitamin C is necessary for the development of bones, teeth, blood vessels, and other tissues, and plays a part in the functioning of most of the cells in the hotly. Deficiency shows itself in painful haemorrhages around the bones and in swollen, bleeding gums, a condition called scurvy. For a long time, in the days when a sailor's diet consisted of salted and dried food and ship's biscuits, scurvy was the curse of sailors on long voyages.

202-It is obvious from the passage that vitamin C …….. .
***A)is an essential part of a healthy diet
B)is present is both raw and well-cooked vegetables
C)is less important for adults than it is for children
D)was once more important than it is now
E) is the best cure for a cold

203-The passage implies that scurvy among sailors was caused by……… .
***A)a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables
B)cooking food for too long
C)having to work under difficult conditions
D)the fact that their journeys were too long
E) their fondness for fish and biscuits

204-The best way to ensure having enough vitamin C in one's diet is to ………. .
A)thoroughly cook all food to destroy harmful bacteria
B)try to avoid diseases affecting bones and teeth
C)make sure that it includes lightly cooked meat
***D)eat plenty of salads and citrus fruits
E)include such items as salted and dried food

At least half of all visitors to Nepal go to the lakeside town of Pokhara. The symbol of the region is the 6.993-metre high Machhapuchhare Mountain, which means “ fish tail” in English. Indeed the mountain is shaped like a fish tail and viewed from Pokhara, is a majestic sight. Yet one detail singles out this giant mountain from the others in the region: no one has ever climbed it, and it is unlikely that anyone ever will. In the 1960s, the Nepalese government declared it a holy mountain, forbidden to mountaineers. Sherpas, in particular, respect this. And without sherpas, the indispensable porters of the high valleys of Nepal, the Europeans and Americans who constantly attempt to conquer the mountains in the region are helpless.

205-It is obvious from the passage that……. .
A)there are a lot of fish in Pokhara Lake
B)no one has ever climbed most of the mountains near Pokhara
C)the mountains around Pokhara have English names
D)tourism in Nepal has grown in importance since the 1960s
***E)Pokhara is one of the most popular destinations in Nepal

206-Machhapuchhare has never been climbed because … .
A)it is one of the tallest mountains in the world
***B)it is regarded as sacred, and so mountaineers are not allowed to climb it
C)it is dangerously steep, which discourages mountaineers from attempting to climb it
D) it is not as challenging for climbers as the other mountains in the region
E) there aren’t any Sherpas experienced enough to lead mountaineers to it

207-What the passage stresses about Sherpas is that they………… .
A)are members of a religious sect trying to ban mountain-climbing in Nepal
B)climbed high mountains until the government forbade them in the 1960s
***C)are essential to climbers who want to conquer the mountains in Nepal
D)don't approve of Europeans and Americans climb their mountain
E)want to be the first people to climb Machhapuchhare

Plants can summon an insect rescue team when they are attacked by pests, just as if they were calling for a microscopic ambulance. In fact, researchers say the signal is specific enough to tell the helpful insects exactly what to expect when they arrive on the scene. For example, two kinds of caterpillars attack numerous crops and cost US farmers about $6 billion annually. The plants summon a black, parasitic wasp that it is the natural enemy of the caterpillars. Scientists have known for years that plants could send out distress calls to wasps and other insect bodyguards, but they are just beginning to understand how sophisticated the messages can be. They hope to find out more about the signals and eventually use them to develop chemical-free pest control systems.

208-The passage states that………….. .
A)most of the agricultural crops produced in the USA are lost to pests
B)caterpillars can help plants attacked by black wasps
C)scientists have known all about plants' distress calls for years
***D)friendly insects can help plants against unfriendly ones
E)researchers have only recently become aware of the distress calls of plants

209-According to the passage, further research into the plants' distress calls is necessary in order for scientists…………. .
A)to act promptly when plants need help
B)to develop new chemicals to be used against pests
C)to understand whether plants really have this ability
D)to distinguish between useful and harmful insects
***E)to make use of them in the fight against pests

210-One can understand from the passage that "pest" means a……….. .
A)microscopic ambulance B)specific signal
***C)harmful insect D)type of researcher
E)helpful insect

Not so long ago, most companies were family affairs, owned by different members of the same family. Some still are, but now many companies have survived the founding families and grown into big organisations which own smaller, or subsidiary companies. These companies work in other countries to form multi-national groups, such as the big oil companies like Shell or Esso, and the big car manufacturers like Ford. The big multi-national companies each control more money than many countries do. These companies only exist to make profits for their owners, or shareholders.

211-According to the passage, most companies………. .
***A)used to belong to a single family
B)are subsidiary companies belonging to larger organisations
C)have larger budgets than some countries do
D)are owned by the oil companies
E)have now been taken over by multi-nationals

212-The author states that……………. .
A)multi-national companies usually belong to a single family
***B)some multi-nationals are richer than some nations
C)there are no longer any family-owned large companies
D)the biggest organisations are called subsidiary companies
E)the big oil companies are usually owned by single families

213-The author believes that multi-national companies……….. .
A)are a positive force in the world
B)are largely controlled by the countries where they work
C)sometimes become too involved in family affairs
***D)have no other purpose but to make money
E)employ many people from the original founding families

The "dead cities" of Syria are coming alive and archaeologists are seriously concerned. Pushed by a booming population, farmers are moving into the hills of northern Syria and making homes in villages that have been deserted but nearly intact for a millennium. The government is trying to limit the destruction of archaeological sites by barring people from moving into hundreds of deserted ancient villages and imposing fines for destroying antiquities. In some cases, officials can pull down newly-built houses that are too close to the dead cities. This has outraged the new villagers; mostly poor Muslim farmers and shepherds who feel little connection to antiquities from Syria's Christian past.

214-The passage tells, us that archaeologists are worried………….. .
A)about the impoverished state of the farmers and shepherds
B) because they are not allowed to continue excavations in Syria
C)because buildings of historical value have officially been given to villagers
D)due to the government's decidedly anti-Christian stance
***E) because the growing population is threatening historic sites in Syria

215-The passage suggests that the villagers’ lack of concern comes from ………. .
A)the government's policy of not fining them heavily for destruction
B)their belief that the cities have always belonged to Syrians
***C)their cultural and religious distance from Syria's Christian past
D)the government's lax attitude to drive them out of their new homes
E)the great profit to be made from selling antiquities to archaeologists

216-It may be gathered from the passage that the ancient cities of northern Syria……….. .
***A)are in very good condition despite being empty for a thousand years
B)are hard to find since they are simply shapeless piles of rocks
C)are really quite new cities but are very poorly maintained
D)have been continuously inhabited for a least a millennium
E)are also home to a large number of Christians

For the first time after the Apollo moon landings, NASA is launching a mission into outer space to bring back extraterritorial material. This time, NASA is going after comet and interstellar dust. "Stardust", the robotic spacecraft that will collect the tiny grains, is scheduled for a journey of seven years that will cover 5.1 billion kilometres. It is NASA's first attempt to bring back pieces of a comet. This particular comet, Wild-2, rarely came close to the Sun until the 1970s, and so still should contain the original, frozen components of the solar system. By studying samples from this well-preserved comet, scientists hope to better understand how icy, rocky comets may have provided the water and organics necessary for life to form on the Earth, and possibly elsewhere.

217-According to the passage, so far, …………. .
A)the Apollo spacecraft has brought back several pieces of comets
B)NASA has regularly sent missions to bring back material from outer space
C)the "Stardust" spacecraft has completed some other major missions
***D)pieces of a comet haven't been brought back from space by NASA
E)the comet Wild-2 has never come close to the Sun

218-The passage suggests that the Wild-2 comet ……… .
A)came close to the Sun for the first time in 1970
B)travels about 5.1 billion kilometres every seven years
C)was discovered In the 1970s
***D)probably consists partly of frozen material
E)is the first comet to come dangerously close to the Earth

219-Scientists wish to study the comet because it…………. .
A)seldom comes near the Sun
B)is full of extraterritorial material
***C)could help them explain how life started
D)is considered to be the oldest comet in the universe
E)may melt if it goes too close to the Sun

In order to avoid the traditional form, writers like the Irishman James Joyce tried to find other structures around which to build their novels. Joyce broke away from the regular beginning, middle, and end technique of earlier writers with his novel 'Ulysses'. Using the Greek mythology contained in The Odyssey', written by Homer, Joyce devised a completely new technique which combined Greek mythology with tales of modern life. In the novel, the adventures of Homer's Ulysses are paralleled to the happenings of one day in the life of a group of characters in Dublin, Ireland. As this novel shows, if a writer actually describes every single thing a character does throughout one day, that one day can easily produce a whole long novel.

220- James Joyce's novel 'Ulysses' ……… .
A)is a traditional novel with a beginning, middle and end
B)was a modem translation of Homer's 'Odysseus'
C)revolutionised classical Greek literature
D)was written in one day
***E)was meant to be different from novels written up to that time

221-According to the passage, 'Ulysses' reflects similarities between………. .
***A)the lives of a mythological figure and a group of contemporary people
B)the writing techniques used by Homer and James Joyce
C)the moral values of Homer's day and those of Joyce's own
D)the lives, over a number of years, of a number of people in Dublin
E)a writer in ancient Greece and one in contemporary Ireland

222-The passage states that the action of the novel takes place……… .
A)in a traditional settling
B)over a long period of time
C)in ancient Greece
***D)in a single day
E)in a mythical setting

Under the great Moghul emperors, artists emerged from their previous anonymity. They were allowed, for the first time, to sign their work, and even encouraged to include self-portraits in their paintings. And the artists' skills did not go unrewarded : one emperor even presented a favourite painter with an elephant, the ultimate status symbol of the age. Yet little is known about the artists' lives. The more successful may have enjoyed an economic status similar to lower-level nobles. However, their simple dress in the self-portraits suggests that the rewards for many painters did not always match their unquestionable talent.

223-In the passage, the word "anonymity' in the first sentence refers to a condition in which………. .
A)the people had to live in extreme poverty
B)the artists were well-respected
C)the emperors employed only very talented artists
D)the artists worked for very little money
***E)the artists of paintings were not known by name

224-At the time of the Mogul emperors, ………… .
A)artists could only earn very little money
***B)not all the artists earned well
C)artists had the same status as the nobles
D)most of the artists were not rewarded for their paintings
E)every artist was allowed to have his own elephant

225-We can infer from the passage that one way artists were able to become better known was by …….. .
***A)including pictures of themselves in their work
B)riding status symbols through town
C)selling paintings to Moghul emperors
D)having an economic status similar to lower-level nobles
E)matching their unquestionable talent with simple dress

Four years ago, Craig Keilburger, a Canadian boy then only 12 years old, founded Free the Children, a youth organisation aimed at ending child labour and encouraging youth involvement in community service. Since then, hundreds of local chapters have formed all over the world, participating in everything from letter-writing campaigns to programmes like "Rugmark", a labelling system for carpets made without child labour. Now 16, Keilburger has travelled extensively, meeting children from Pakistan to Brazil and giving speeches on child exploitation.

226-According to the passage, Free the Children is……… .
***A)an association opposed to children having to work
B)an organisation which was founded 16 years ago
C)dedicated to teaching children how to write letters
D)a group of adults who want to help children
E)a charity founded in Canada, but now active in Pakistan and Brazil

227-It can be inferred from the passage that…….. .
A)Craig Keilburger is now 19 years old
B)child labour has been ended because of the efforts of Free the Children
C)Free the Children is one of the most effective organisations in the world
***D)children are often exploited in making carpets
E)Canadians understand the world better than other people

228-The passage states that Craig Keilburger……….. .
A)has personally founded hundreds of local chapters of Free the Children
B)has become one of the youngest successful businessmen in the world
***C)travels around the world lecturing on the exploitation of children
D)labels carpets made without child labour
E)believes that children should help to support their families

The producer is the person who starts and controls the whole process of making a film. He may buy the film rights to a book or employ a scriptwriter to write a script. He employs all the staff, both technical and creative involved in the making of the film, including the director. He is also in control of the finances of the film, and it is his responsibility to see that the cost does not exceed the budget allowed. Unlike today, in the golden age of Hollywood in the 1930s and '40s, the famous names were the producers like David Selnnick and Samuel Goldwin, and not the directors.

229- We learn from the passage that………. .
A)the producer is the most creative person involved in making a film
B)producers have not been very important since the 1940s
C)the producer is responsible only for technical parts of film-making
D)the direct6r plays the most important role in making a film
***E)the producer is involved with every aspect of making a film

230-It is implied in the passage that………… .
A)directors and producers have equal status today
B)producers finance films, but other people are more important in making a film
C)producers usually write scripts for their films
***D)producers are no longer as famous as they once were
E)films were better in the 1930s and '40s than they are today.

231-According to the passage, …………. .
A)the cost of a film often exceeds its budget
***B)it is the producer who oversees the finances of a film
C)today. the producer and the director of a film are usually the same person
D)films with the largest budgets are always the most successful
E)no contemporary producer has ever been as successful as David Selznick or Samuel Goldwin

At present, there are only two people in the world who have undergone successful hand transplants. This operation has only recently been available and the second successful transplant was carried out in January, 1999. Since this operation, more than one hundred people have contacted the doctor who carried out the operation. Potential candidates are put through medical, psychiatric and psychological tests. Their medical histories are scrutinised. Moreover, they are bluntly told of the risks of the medication that suppresses the immune system. This is necessary to prevent the body from rejecting the foreign tissue in the new hand, which is taken from a dead body.

232-The passage tells us that ………. .
A)more than one hundred people have recently had hand transplants
B)having a hand transplant is a new craze in cosmetic surgery
***C)effective techniques for transplanting human hands have only been recently developed
D)two people have recently died due to the failure of their immune systems during hand transplants
E)the same doctor has carried out more than a hundred operations recently

233-In the case of a hand transplant, the immune system……… .
***A)might reject the new hand if not controlled
B)plays the major role on the psychological situation of the candidates
C)is suppressed to reduce the risk of spreading the infection
D)is risky to people with certain medical histories
E)of a dead body might not be compatible with that of the person receiving the hand

234-It is implied in the passage that……….. .
A)most hand transplant operations are successful
B)the doctor who carried out the second successful operation is advertising for more business
C)only the person whose immune system functions well is considered suitable for the operation
***D)there may be psychological as well as physical problems for those who receive the operation
E)it is still too soon to tell how successful the two most recent operations have been

One of the smallest of all mammals is the shrew, a mouse like creature with a head and body length of only 3.8 centimetres. All shrews are small, with dense, velvety fur, long tails, and tiny eyes and ears. Shrews have been called bloodthirsty, though the label is not entirely accurate because they must eat almost constantly to stay alive. The animal is believed to have a very high ****bolic rate and cannot live more than a few hours without food. In the absence of normal prey, it will turn to cannibalism to survive. The shrew, or some closely related animal, can be found on every continent except Australia. Since this tiny animal has a reputation for having a very bad temper, the adjective "shrewish" is sometimes used to describe a certain type of women.

235-The passage tells us that the shrew……… .
A)has a very short life span
***B)is similar to a mouse in appearance
C)lives in dense forests
D)makes an exceptionally good pet
E)is in the habit of eating every two hours

236-The passage states that shrews……….. .
A)are found in huge numbers in Australia
B)are the smallest living mammals
***C)eat each other when they can't find any food
D)feed on the blood of other mammals
E)eat rarely but in large amounts at a time

237-From what is stated in the passage, we can infer that a shrewish woman is someone who………… .
A)has tiny eyes and ears
B)is very fond of velvet and fur
C)keeps shrews as pets
***D)easily gets annoyed
E)is noticeably smaller than the average

Over the past 30 years, children's consumption in Britain has increased dramatically. In the average family of two parents and two children, spending on toys and children's clothing has more than tripled, and spending on sweets, ice-cream and soft drinks has risen by one-third. Research has recently found that spending is around £3,000 per child per year. The growth in spending reflects higher living standards, but it has been boosted by the efforts of the advertising industry. Campaigns directed straight at children account for much advertising expenditure. Most children in Britain over eight now have a television in the bedroom; on average, they watch 900 hours of TV a year, which is more than the 750 hours the average child is actually being taught in school. Thus a child could see at least 10,000 commercials a year.

238-The average family 30 years ago………. .
A)bought more children's clothes and books and less ice-cream and candy
B)watched more TV commercials than today
C)had a higher living standard than today
D)didn't have a television set
***E)spent far less on children's products

239-One reason that children's consumption in Britain has risen is that……….. .
A)parents tend to have fewer kids now
B)more kids are involved in advertising campaigns
C)researchers advise parents to spend £3000 per year
***D)the living standard has risen in the country over the years
E)children have much more money themselves nowadays

240-The author concludes the fact that most children over 8 now have their own television set means…….. .
A)children prefer watching television to going to school
B)children are not as healthy as they were
C)more, children are missing school in order to watch television
***D)an increasing amount of commercials are being watched by children
E)children spend a lot of time away from their parents

A movement called Jubilee 2000 is campaigning for Third World debt cancellation as a fitting way to mark the millennium. Launched two years ago, the group is now working in 42 countries, and is now supported by a large number of celebrities. Leaders of the group are harsh critics of the big creditors' role in the developing world. In Tanzania, for example, one child in six dies before the age of five due to the lack of proper health care, but the government spends four times more on paying the interest on its debts than on primary health care. Money needed for health and education programs goes instead to rich international creditors, whose billions have often supported corrupt elites.

241-According to the passage, the purpose of Jubilee 2000 is……… .
A)to hold a charity concert involving a lot of celebrities
***B)to allow poor nations to escape paying back large loans
C)to criticise big creditors in the developing world
D)to have a big party on New Year's Eve at the millennium
E)to raise as much money as possible to help poor nations

242-The leaders of Jubilee 2000 argue that………… .
A)42 countries need to have their debts cancelled
B)creditors should lend poor nations more money for primary health care
C)celebrities of the developing countries are not responsible enough
D)celebrities are important in making the world a better place to live
***E)paying interest on huge debts is one reason many children die in developing countries

243-The passage implies that ordinary people in the developing world……… .
A)cannot afford to celebrate the millennium
B)should be helped by the big creditors in their countries
***C)would benefit from large debts being cancelled
D)are often the ones who haven't received any education
E)are ignorant of basic principles of health care

Palmistry is the practice of 'reading hands', of gaining knowledge about personality, past individual history, and likely future events by examining the shape and size of the fingers and, most important, the lines and bumps on the palms themselves. There is some evidence that palmistry may have begun in the Stone Age. Hand outlines can be seen in black and red pigments on the walls of the ancient caves of Almira in Spain and in other European caves. Palmistry as it exists today probably had its origins in ancient India long before recorded history and found its way into western Europe through nomadic bands of Gypsies, who made contact with Europe in the 15th century.

244-Of the following, the one not mentioned in the passage as part of palmistry is………. .
A)foretelling the future
***B)changing the events of the future
C) exploring people's pasts
D)learning about things that may happen
E)learning about character

245-It is stated in the passage that the most essential thing for a palm reader to do is……….. .
A)to examine people's past histories
B)to inspect the fingers carefully
C)to practise by 'reading' many palms
***D) to look closely at the surface of the palm
E)to learn about different personality types

246-The passage explains that it is most likely that palmistry as we know it began……….. .
A)in various parts of Europe
***B)in India in ancient times
C)in caves in Spain
D)in the 15th century
E)in the Stone Age

Aphids are tiny green insects that are a chronic pest for farmers. Spiders and ground beetles living along field margins can keep their numbers under control. But as fields have become larger, the spiders and beetles take longer to get to the middle of them, so farmers began using pesticides for a problem that was once controlled naturally. An insect ecologist came up with a new solution called "beetle banks". These are one metre-wide strips of grass planted at 100-metre intervals across the fields. After two years, there will be enough beetles and spiders in one beetle bank to eat 52 million aphids a week, and the farmer will get rid of aphids without using a single drop of pesticide.

247-We can infer from the passage that………. .
A)all insects are pests for farmers
***B)spiders and beetles are beneficial for farmers
C)farmers want to keep the number of spiders and beetles under control
D)farmers are legally not allowed to use pesticide'
E)aphids are only dangerous if they amount to large numbers

248-The passage states that……….. .
***A)beetle banks are a natural method of pest control
B)beetles can eat 52 million aphids every two years
C)farmers have to keep checking the numbers of aphids in their fields
D)one of the jobs of insect ecologists is to develop pesticides
E)the main purpose of pesticides is to kill beetles and spiders

249-Though he does not state it directly, the author seems to believe that....……… .
A)natural methods are inadequate to control aphids
B)pesticides are usually the best way of controlling pests
C)beetle banks are one-metre wide strips of grass
D)spiders and beetles should stay in field margins so they won't bother the farmers
***E)natural methods are better than pesticides for controlling pests

The ancient Greeks built open-air theatres, usually on a hillside, with semi-circular rows of seats overlooking a circular space called the orchestra. The restored theatre at Epidaurus, dating from about 350 B.C., is a good example of a Classical Greek theatre. The Romans altered this plan by introducing a raised platform for the performers. The first theatre in London was erected in Shoreditch by Richard Burbage, a colleague of Shakespeare; a little later, in about 1590, he built the more famous Globe theatre across the River Thames at Southwark. However, the first theatre in the modern sense was built at Parma, Italy in 1618, with the familiar plan of an auditorium with a raised stage and a curtain.

250-It is clear from the passage that ancient Greek theatres………. .
***A)had no ceilings at all
B)were restored in 350 B.C.
C)had elevated stages
D)were built in valleys
E)had circular seating

251-We learn from the passage that the Globe theatre was……….. .
A)built by Shakespeare himself with the help of Richard Burbage
B)built in Shoreditch, a London district on the River Thames
***C)on the other side of the Thames from London's first theatre
D)the first theatre ever built in London
E) next to London's first ever theatre

252-It is implied in the passage that all modern theatres ……… .
A)have semi-circular rows of seats
***B)have a familiar plan
C)closely resemble the Classical Greek theatre
D)are built on flat ground
E)employ a large orchestra

A team of mountaineers is to search Everest to try to settle once and for all a claim that the world's highest peak was conquered 29 years before Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay's 1953 triumph. British climbers George Mallory and Andrew Irvine disappeared about 700 feet from the top of Everest in 1924, inspiring one of mountaineering's most enduring legends. Their bodies have never been discovered - and neither has the Vest-Pocket Kodak camera Mallory was carrying in his knapsack. According to Kodak, the cold conditions may well have preserved the film. If the film featured a photograph of either of the two men at the mountain peak, the discovery would turn their story of glorious failure into one of sweet success.

253-A team of mountaineers is going to climb Everest in order to……….. .
A)prove that Hilary and Norgay actually climbed to the highest peak
B)try to found a settlement there on the world's highest mountain
C)find the bodies of Mallory and Irvine so that they can be buried
***D)attempt to solve a seventy-five-year old unsolved mystery
E)try to stake a claim for Britain on the world's highest peak

254-What is not known from the passage is whether……. .
A)Mallory and Irvine actually disappeared in 1924
B)Hillary and Norgay really climbed the peak when they said they did
C)Mallory and Irvine had a camera with them when they were climbing Everest
***D)Mallory and Irvine were ascending or descending when they disappeared
E) Mallory and Irvine were real people or merely legendary figures

255-In reference to this situation, Kodak claim that…….. .
A)the mountaineers should have made a film of this expedition
B)they managed to get the film taken by Mallory and Irvine at the peak
C)Mallory and Irvine were able to photograph the mountain peak
D)their cameras operate perfectly even in extreme cold
***E)there's a good chance that any photographs found could be developed

Incessant violence' has been only one aspect of Pakistan's national tragedy since independence. The country has never had an elected government that survived long enough to be voted out of office. The country has spent half its life under military, dictatorships, with the result that now soldiers outnumber doctors 9 to 1. More than half the population is illiterate. Per capita economic growth is approximately zero, and Pakistan has been named as one of the five most corrupt countries in the world. Yet no one in Pakistan believes that their country should have remained part of India.

256-We learn from the passage that………….. .
A)Pakistan is not a particularly violent country
B)the Pakistani experiment with democracy has enjoyed considerable success
***C)less than half the population of Pakistan knows how to read and write
D)there have to be a lot of doctors in Pakistan to take care of all the soldiers
E)India is more peaceful and prosperous than Pakistan

257-Of the following, the problem that the author hasn't mentioned is……….. .
***A)the religious disputes that led to the split from India
B)the disproportionate number of military men to medical staff
C)the unusual number of military governments since independence
D)the lack of any economic growth in real terms
E)corruption among Pakistani officials

258-We can conclude from the passage that the Pakistani citizens ………….. .
***A)would not be in favour of reunification with India
B)say that Pakistan has a bright future ahead of it
C)believe that Pakistan should never have broken away from India
D)seem content with the current economic growth
E)are hopeful that democracy in Pakistan has a bright future

Rarely does a century begin so clearly and cleanly as did the present one. In 1900, Freud published 'The Interpretation of Dreams", ending the Victorian Era. Queen Victoria, as if on cue, died the following January after a 63-year reign. Her empire included one quarter of the world's population, but already the Boer War in South Africa was signalling the end of the colonial era. In China, the Boxer Rebellion heralded the awakening of a new giant. In America, cars were replacing horses, and the average life-span was about 50, which is today 75.

259- The main point of the passage is that………… .
A)the Victorian Era ended in the year 1900
B)at the end of the 19th century, the British Empire was huge
***C)a number of events, unlike the usual way, clearly defined the beginning of the 20th century
D)China used to be an important part of the British Empire
E)the 19th century was marked by Freud's 'The Interpretation of Dreams"

260-It is clear from the passage that around the year 1900, …… ..
A)people finally learnt the true meanings of their dreams
B)Queen Victoria disliked people who interpreted dreams
C)many African nations had already gained independence
***D)people in the United States did not live as long as they do today
E)cars had not yet been invented

261-It is implied in the passage that……… .
A)Freud waited until the turn of the century to publish his book
***B)the Boer War meant more revolts against colonialism were to come
C)one quarter of the world's population lives in China
D)there is some connection between life expectancy in America, cars, and horses
E)Queen Victoria was the longest serving monarch

Thirty years after his assassination, Martin Luther King is still regarded as a black leader of a movement for black equality. That assessment, while accurate, is far too restrictive. For it is only because of King and the movement that he led that the US can claim to be leader of the "free world" without inviting smirks of disdain and disbelief. Had he and the blacks and 'whites who marched beside him failed, vast regions of the US would have remained morally indistinguishable from South Africa under apartheid, with terrible consequences for America's standing among nations.

262-We learn from the passage that …………… .
A)Martin Luther King's movement did not go beyond helping black Americans
B)Martin Luther King died a natural death
C)the usual assessment of King reflects the entire nature of his movement
D)Martin Luther King was a great South African leader
***E)white people as well as black people participated in King's government

263-If Martin Luther King's movement had failed, ………… .
A)no assessment of Martin Luther King could possibly be accurate
B)another similar organisation would have achieved the same things
***C)some areas of the USA would resemble South Africa under apartheid
D)many Americans would have moved to South Africa.
E)he might not have been assassinated

264- The author believes that………. .
A)the United States has always been the best possible leader of the "Free World"
B)had Martin Luther King not been assassinated, his movement would have failed
C)Martin Luther King helped white people more than he helped black people
***D)the USA owes its current position among nations to King's movement
E)King's movement has had terrible results for America's image among nations

Other nations have medical air services, but Australia's is the oldest and covers the most ground. For more than 70 years, the Flying Doctors Service has been a mainstay of the sparsely populated Australian Outback, providing medical supplies and treatment to areas where there is often no alternative, and where the difference can be life and death. If you drive just a few hours inland from the coast, where most Australians live, you are in Flying Doctors country. The 53 pilots share duties in 38 planes stationed at 17 bases dotted across the country. They serve 7 million square kilometres of scrubland and desert, an area more than two-thirds the size of the United States.

265-The passage tells us that………… .
A)the majority of the population in Australia live a few hours from the coast
B)a sparse population makes it easy for doctors to treat their patients properly
***C)Australia's medical air service is the most extensive in the world
D}the "flying doctor" service is no alternative to a proper medical service
E) some of the doctors in the medical air service are more than 70 years old

266-Were it not for the Australian Flying Doctors Service, …… .
A)other nations would have similar services
***B)there would be almost no medical treatment for those in the Australian Outback
C)the Australian Outback would be sparsely populated
D)most Australians would have to live on the coast
E)hospitals on the coast would be over-crowded

267-The passage emphasises that the Flying Doctors Service……….. .
A)is having difficulty finding staff to work with them
***B)is essential to the life of people in the Australian Outback
C)is in need of help from other well-off nations
D)is responsible for almost two-thirds of the country
E)employs 83 pilots and 38 planes stationed at a single base

On the introduction of coffee to England, in about the middle of the 17th century, many coffee shops were opened throughout central London. A great deal of business was transacted in these coffee shops, including public sales of ships and goods. One among them, owned by a Mr Lloyd, appears to have been a great favourite among businessmen. In 1696, Mr Lloyd started one of the earliest commercial newspapers in London, under the name of Lloyd's News, containing commercial and shipping information both from home and abroad. This paper attracted man customers from the shipping trade, and very shortly, led to Lloyd's coffee house becoming the headquarters of the maritime insurance business. Today, hundreds of years later, Lloyd's of London remains the name of the world's biggest maritime insurance company.

268- The 17th century coffee shops mentioned in the passage …. .
A)were originally started in certain businessmen's offices
B)must have sometimes seemed more like shops than cafes
C)were all owned by one man, who was called Mr Lloyd
***D)were new to Londoners
E)were generally not open at first to the general public

269-Mr Lloyd……… .
***A)increased the popularity of his coffee shop by starting a newspaper
B)was a very popular, well-liked businessman
C)was the original owner of what is now the largest shipping company
D)expanded his original coffee shop into a very successful chain of shops
E)started what may very well have been London's first ever newspaper

270-It is implied that Lloyd's of London…….. .
A)is still based on the site of the original coffee shop
B)is, coincidentally, named after a popular coffee shop
C)is the largest shipping company in the world
D)is still run by members of the first Mr Lloyd's family
***E)has been in business for what must be over 300 years

At the turn of the century, the European powers were hard at work attempting to claim as much land in Africa as possible. Britain's General Kitchner had pushed through the gates of Khartoum, and French troops were fighting Moroccans resisting them. A hundred years later, the possessors of the past have come and gone, and the continent is unfettered from colonialism. It has been a long and painful march to freedom. The African people have been weighed down beneath the yoke of historical circumstance and traumatized by some 400 years of a slave trade, which only ended around 1850. Yet for better or for worse, Africa is finally its own master.

271-The passage makes it clear that a century ago, ………. .
A)Africans achieved freedom by holding protest marches
B)Khartoum won a major victory against Britain's General Kitchner
C)Africa was still mostly unknown to Europeans
***D)Europeans were trying to conquer as much of Africa as they could
E)General Kitchner fought against the French in Africa

272-The word "unfettered" probably means……….. .
A)being held as a slave by another country
B)being forced to march from one place to another
C)traumatic historic circumstances
D)the colonisation of a nation by a stronger one
***E)to be set free from some control or restraint

273-The author states that……….. .
A)all will be well for Africa now that the colonial powers have departed
B)the British and the French should never have left Africa
***C)Africans had to struggle hard for their independence
D)Africa's history provides a firm foundation for the steady growth of its nations
E)most nations in Africa are still ruled by European countries

For hundreds of years, the nomadic Sami reindeer herders of Sweden have taken their animals to the lowland snow forests over winter and spent the summer in the high Arctic. However, the timber companies are now excluding them from their winter grazing. The animals survive the cold and snow by grazing on tree lichens, but the forest owners claim that the reindeer damage their property by breaking the tops off the young trees, and are using the courts to try to evict them. The Sami community, on the other hand, say that every village has its own forest areas where they have been taking their reindeer for hundreds of years, since before the settlers arrived from the south. However, the Sami have no written language and cannot prove their rights in court as they have no documents.

274-The conflict described in the passage……….. .
A)has been building up over many hundreds of years and has now reached a peak
***B)has arisen between the traditional inhabitants of the area and the timber industry
C)could be avoided if the Sami were prepared to remain in their native land
D)is about the Sami's use of certain mountain forests which they do not own
E)has only recently arisen because of ecological changes in the disputed area

275-The Sami's reindeer………. .
***A)depend on trees for their nourishment during winter
B)have lived permanently in the forests for centuries
C)need the forests in order to shelter from the snow
D)especially like eating the tops of young trees
E)live in the nearby Sami villages when not in the forest

276- The Sami say that their claim to grazing rights in the forests is based on………. .
A)legal papers which the Sami will produce in court
B)the fact that they bought the forests many years ago
C)documents which have unfortunately been lost
***D)the fact that they were using the land before anyone else
E)the forest areas being very close to the Sami's own villages

Born in 1898, Paul Robeson was the son of a runaway slave. He was the only black student to try out for the Rutgers University football team. In response, the other players beat him up and pulled out his fingernails. He bore the abu8e to prove his worth. He not only graduated at the top of his class, but had been an All-American, the top honour for a university football player, twice. Within four years after graduation, he was one of the best-known actors and singers in the United States. Yet because he was a black man with strong political beliefs, he was forced to spend much of his life in England, and when he did return to the United States, his passport was taken away.

277-We understand from the passage that…………. .
A)Paul Robeson was born as a slave
***B) the other players on the Rutgers University football team were all white
C)the Rutgers University football team was the best in the country
D)Paul Robeson was the only black student at Rutgers University
E)Paul Robeson abused the other players on the football team

278-It is obvious from the passage that Paul Robeson……….. .
A)had few talents besides playing football
***B)was a man of many talents
C)was a determined but not particularly good football player
D)was highly respected in England
E)was a good athlete but an academic failure

279-The passage tells us that, in his football life, Robeson ……. .
A)was only able to play against other university teams a few times
B)failed to accomplish much due to the pressure from white players
C)was rarely given the chance to play in major competitions
D)was physically tortured by the other players in his team many times
***E)was chosen the best university football player twice

Touring the monuments to Thailand's past will take the traveller to all parts of the country. Just a short distance west of Bangkok, for example, stands Phra Pathom Chedi, the world's tallest Buddhist monument. Travel a little further west and an episode of more recent history is recalled at Kachanaburi, site of the infamous bridge over the River Kwai. In contrast, north-east Thailand offers a glimpse of the ancient Khmer civilisation with a number of extremely well-preserved temple ruins, which rank as the finest surviving Khmer monuments to be seen outside of Cambodia. Elsewhere, ancient cities and venerable temples bear witness to the kingdom of Lanna, founded in the late 13th century in northern Thaaand, while in the south traces of the Srivajaya kingdom survive as testament to one of the most influential of the pre-Thai civilisations.

280- We can conclude from the passage that…………… .
A)the best reason to visit Thailand is to relax on its beautiful beaches
B)the Bridge on the River Kwai is one of the oldest monuments in Thailand
C)most of the historical monuments in Thailand are concentrated in a small area
***D)anyone who loves history should enjoy a visit to Thailand
E)Thailand has been an isolated country throughout most of its history

281-Part of the passage implies that………. .
***A)the "Khmer" civilisation was probably centred in the country today called Cambodia
B)the world's tallest monument is in Thailand
C)many historical buildings in Thailand are not well-preserved
D)there are world-class facilities for tourists everywhere in Thailand
E)Cambodia has a better-developed tourist industry than Thailand

282-It's clear from the passage that the monuments in Thailand………. .
A)belong to the same period of the nation's, history
B)are all within easy reach from the capital
***C)are scattered all over the country
D)are all from pre-Thai civilisations
E)attract millions of tourists to the country every year

In a land famous for loving all creatures great and small, one of the smallest - the bat - is not at all popular in some historic churches. The furry flying mammals, which are strictly protected by British law, like to bring up their little offspring in the ceilings of old churches. But they can make a terrible mess of the inside of a church, and have caused irreparable damage to rare medieval paintings, carvings, and brass work. The leader of the Movement Against Bats in Churches was quoted as saying, "Our heritage itself is an endangered 3pecies when bats move into churches and use them as public lavatories day and night."

283-According to the passage, one of the greatest dangers to Britain’s medieval churches is…….. .
A)the air currents caused by flying bats
B)baby bats playing in the ceilings of churches
C)the ignorance of people using their lavatories
***D)damage caused by the waste products of bats
E)public lavatories located near churches

284- It is clear from the passage that………. .
A)British people love all animals, except for bats
B)there is a law against keeping bats as pets
C)bats are the most popular animals in Britain
D)the damage caused by bats is easily repaired
***E)the law forbids any disturbance to bats

285-The passage states that Britain is well-known for………… .
A)making its heritage an endangered species
B)its attitude toward furry flying mammals
C)a unique pressure group known as the Movement against Bats 'in Churches
D)making messes inside its historical churches
***E)being extremely fond of animals of all sorts

Babies whose mothers smoke during pregnancy could be at higher risk of growing up to be criminals, new research suggests. This is the first study to examine the relationship between mothers who smoke and their children's adult behaviour. The findings were based on data for 4,169 males born in Copenhagen between September 1959 and December 1961. Their arrest records at age 34 were studied. It was discovered that the number of cigarettes their mothers had smoked during the last third of their pregnancy affected the men's arrests for both violent and non-violent crimes. This was true even when other possible causes, such as use of alcohol, divorce, income, and home environment had been taken into consideration.

286-The main idea of the passage is that……… .
***A)smoking during pregnancy increases the possibility of the child committing crimes in adult life
B)pregnant women who smoke should be regarded as criminals and be punished
C)4.169 males were born in Copenhagen between the years 1959 and 1961
D)most criminals are heavy smokers
E) most of the men at age 34 in Copenhagen have arrest records

287-The research mentioned in the passage………… .
A)concentrated on the effects of smoking before and after pregnancy
B)was a repetition of several previous studies, which were inconclusive
***C)mainly dealt with the adult behaviour of the children of smoking mothers
D)worked with smoking mothers below the age of 34
E)studied only the last third of a mother's pregnancy

288-From the passage, we can say that the researchers were careful because………. .
A)they monitored the lives of their subjects from birth to age 34
B)they chose subjects who had only committed minor crimes
C)all men born between September 1959 and December 1961 were studied
***D)other possible causes of crime were also considered
E)they studied so many men from so many different countries

James Harrison thought he could make a fortune if he could freeze and transport surplus beef and mutton to England, where meat prices were very high. Ice-making machines had been developed in the, 1830s, but in order to keep the food frozen, a refrigeration machine had to be developed to ensure a stabilised temperature. Harrison patented his machine in 1857 and by 1873 had perfected his method. He arranged a special meal to celebrate his invention. The meat he served had been completely frozen for six months, but not one dinner guest could tell that it wasn't freshly slaughtered.

289-It appears that Harrison's efforts to develop effective refrigeration…………. .
A)were realised in a few years once he got started on them
B)came from his wish to help Australian farmers
C)were made possible by funding from the wealthy
D)stemmed from his love of frozen food and drink
***E)were motivated by his desire to make a profit

290-The author suggests that a problem with transporting frozen food was………… .
***A)finding a way to keep its temperature constant
B)developing a profitable way to ship it abroad
C)knowing whether there would be a demand for it
D)the price difference between England and Australia
E)making enough ice to keep it from melting

291-One may infer from this passage that……….. .
A)frozen meat is actually better than freshly-slaughtered meat
B)meat cannot last much longer than six months in a freezer
C)meat must be frozen immediately after slaughter to taste fresh
***D)Harrison's method of preservation was quite successful
E)only the food experts could understand that Harrison served frozen meat

Benjamin Franklin, who was to become one of the best known American writers, politicians and scientists, was born in Boston in 1706. He was one of 17 children, and as a child, he worked in the shop of his father, who was a soap and candle maker. As he loved to read and study, however, working for his father did not appeal to him, so when he was 12, he was sent to assist his brother James, who had a printing shop. There, surrounded by books, he would often stay up late at night reading on a wide range of subjects. As he read, he practised improving his own style of writing.

292-It is stated in the passage that Benjamin Franklin…………….. .
A)was born into a family including well-known people
B)started to work in his father's shop when he was 12
***C)was not content to be working with his father
D)had a decent formal education
E)came from a wealthy background

293- We can conclude from the passage that the work Benjamin's brother was doing ……….. .
A)required Benjamin to work until late at night
B)was, in the first place, financed by their father
C)was a lot more profitable than his father's work
D)was too hard for a twelve-year-old
***E) was well suited to Benjamin's interests

294-It is obvious from the passage that…………. .
A)Benjamin Franklin's father had plenty of free time to spend with his son
***B)Benjamin Franklin grew into a man of many talents
C)lacking a formal education, Benjamin Franklin didn't achieve much in writing
D)Benjamin Franklin's relationship with his father was distant
E)Benjamin's father was illiterate

The world's first liquid-fuelled rocket took off on a cold afternoon in March 1926, from a farm in New England. The result of years of trial and error by a physics professor named Robert Goddard, it rose about 14 metres. Goddard was certain that this modest flight was the first step towards future space flight, but few others shared his enthusiasm. The director of the Smithsonian -Institution, from which he had been receiving a small amount of financial assistance, was disappointed. The newspapers made fun of him. Yet today, space scientists consider the 1926 experiment an event as important as man's first successful flight.

295-The passage makes it clear that……….. .
***A)hardly anyone took Goddard and his rocket seriously at the time
B)Goddard found financial support after the experiment
C)Goddard was not in the habit of exaggerating things
D)space flight was considered a real possibility by many people after 1926
E)it is best to experiment with rockets when the weather is cold

296-We learn from the passage that …………. .
A)it is always cold in New England in March
B)the Smithsonian Institution met the entire expense for Goddard's rocket
***C)Goddard's experiment was important in the development of future rockets
D)Goddard was put on trial for his errors as a physics professor
E)Robert Goddard owned a farm in New England

297-We can assume from the passage that before the experimental flight in 1926, ………… .
A)many others had tried to do a similar thing
B)the director of the Smithsonian Institution was not hopeful of any success
C)other scientists had attempted to do it
D)no one believed that it would be successful
***E)Goddard had made other trials but had failed

In 1920, after some thirty-nine years of problems with disease, high costs and politics, the Panama Canal was officially opened. This linked the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by allowing ships to pass through the fifty-mile canal zone instead of travelling some seven thousand miles around Cape Horn. It takes a ship approximately eight hours to complete the trip through the canal, and costs a tenth of what it would cost the average ship to round the Horn. More than fifteen thousand ships use the canal annually.

298- The passage gives us the information that ………….. .
A)the Panama Canal was built in order to combat certain diseases
B)there were more political problems than problems with disease during the construction of the canal
C)the Panama Canal is built at the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
***D)it took a little less than four decades to build the Panama Canal
E)the Panama Canal has been used by about fifteen thousand ships since its construction

299-The Panama Canal………….. .
***A)provides a cheaper and shorter alternative route between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
B)reduces the distance between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by 90 per cent
C)is seven thousand miles from Cape Horn
D)makes it possible to cover fifteen thousand miles in eight hours
E)was begun in 1920, despite opposition from the natives

300-We can infer from the passage that before the Panama Canal opened, ………… .
A)there was a lot of disease in the region which has now been eliminated
B)fifteen thousand ships a year went around Cape Horn
C)there was no connection by sea between the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean
D)there were too few ships to make such a project profitable
***E)the journey by ship from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean took much longer

A fire extinguisher, even a small one, located near the kitchen is a wise investment. But be sure that the extinguisher is rated to put out kitchen fires. What the extinguisher is designed to do is stated on the outside. Rather than bother trying to determine which one is best for you, just get an extinguisher that is rated to control all three primary types of fires: (1) ordinary combustibles such as paper and wood; (2) flammable liquids, such as fat, gasoline and grease; and (3) electric fires. Read the directions carefully. Teach everyone in the family how to operate the extinguisher, and do not buy one that is too heavy for a child of nine or ten to lift.

301-We learn from the passage that…………… .
A)fire extinguishers can be very expensive
B)it is best to keep the extinguisher in the kitchen
C)a large extinguisher is more effective than a small one
D)only one fire extinguisher per household is advisable
***E)not all extinguishers are useful in all types of fires

302-The author advises people wanting to buy an extinguisher for kitchen fires to purchase one………. .
A)that displays its functions on the outside
***B)that can put out the main types of fire
C)that comes with a full set of instructions
D)that is based on whether they have an electric or gas cooker
E)that does not work by gas or electricity

303-According to the information in the passage, when one has installed a fire extinguisher, …………. .
A)one should learn how to prevent fires in the first place
B)one should remember that youngsters will find it hard to use
***C)the whole household should be instructed in its use
D)one should' keep the instructions in a safe place
E)young children should be kept away from this equipment

In the early 20th century, the population of Macedonia was composed of many different peoples, usually fighting one another. That such a land of violence and conflict in the last days of the Ottoman Empire would produce a future winner of the Nobel Peace Prize would have seemed highly improbable. Yet in Skopje, one of the two men who opened the town's first theatre was an Albanian married to a Serb. A daughter was born into this typically cosmopolitan Macedonian family, who, as Mother Theresa, would find her vocation in far away places, doing charitable work among the victims of poverty and neglect - particularly in the slums of Calcutta, India. In 1979, she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of her humanitarian efforts.

304-The passage states that in the early 20th century, ……….. .
A)the Macedonian population was uniform
B)there was little hostility between different peoples in Macedonia
***C)Macedonia was a land of conflicts and disagreement
D)the Ottomans were trying to expand into Macedonia
E)Macedonians produced a hero who was to receive the Nobel Peace Prize

305- Mother Theresa's father………….. .
A)was Serbian, but he married an Albanian
B)fought against Ottoman rule throughout his life.
C)was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
***D)established, with another friend, Skopje's first theatre
E)emigrated, with his family, to Calcutta, India

306- Mother Theresa………….. .
***A)found her life's work among the impoverished people of India
B)spent most of her life trying to solve the conflicts in her native land
C)helped her father open the first theatre in Skopje
D)would not have won the Nobel Peace Prize had she not been from Macedonia
E)acted as a peace-maker between Albanians and Serbs

Melville Bell, the father of Alexander Graham. Bell, the inventor of the telephone, studied the anatomy of speech and approached his subjects with scientific thoroughness. In 1864, he completed a universally applicable phonetic alphabet. by which he could describe the manner of production of the sounds of nearly all known languages. He called this alphabet 'Visible Speech" and its various symbols - thirty-four in all -showed how the vocal organs would be positioned to make a sound. This alphabet was to become the direct ancestor of the international phonetic alphabet, which is used today.

307-According to the passage, Melville Bell……………
A)was the man who invented the telephone
B)inspired his son, Alexander Graham Bell, to invent the telephone
***C)advanced the scientific study of speech in the 19th century
D)made several discoveries in the areas of vision and human anatomy
E)was the sole creator of the current international phonetic alphabet

308- It is clear from the passage that by using "Visible Speech" , …………….. .
***A)the sounds of almost every known language could be reproduced
B)subjects could be approached with scientific thoroughness
C)a language spoken by the whole world has been created
D)people who spoke different languages were able to communicate with each other
E)scholars were able to learn more about the languages spoken by their ancestors

309-One can conclude from the passage that the languages studied by Melville………. .
A)require the use of different organs even when the same sound is produced
B)were the ones spoken in the major countries of the world
***C)belong to the same language family
D)include at least some of the 34 sounds he had noted
E)consist of exactly the same sounds

After several years of wandering around in the eastern part of the United States, supporting himself as a printer and with his writing, Samuel Clemens returned to the Mississippi River to realise his old ambition of becoming a steamboat pilot. In 1857, after 18 months apprenticeship, he earned his pilot's licence, and for the next four years he steamed up and down the Mississippi getting to know the name and position of every feature on the river. In addition, he learnt the special language used on the steamboats, where the phrase "mark twain” meant the water was deep enough to be safe. He used his knowledge of the river and his experiences there later when he wrote his most famous novel. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" under his pen name, Mark Twain.

310-It is obvious from the passage that Samuel Clemens........ .
A)became close friends with Mark Twain when they were working as steamboat pilots
B)is the name of the hero in Mark Twain's most famous novel
C)was one of the most enthusiastic apprentices of Mark Twain
D)told Mark Twain his experiences as a steamboat pilot
***E)is the actual name of the author known as Mark Twain

311-From the information in the passage, one can conclude that the setting in Twain's most famous book……….
A)is purely from imagination
***B)resembles the actual geography of the river
C)is the wilderness in 19th century America
D)includes the coastal parts of the New World
E)has no connection with any real place on the Earth

312-Before becoming a steamboat pilot. Mark Twain……….. .
A)learnt the names of all the geographical points along the Mississippi
B) wandered around the world aimlessly
C) wrote his famous novel. 'Huckleberry Finn'
D)learnt a variety of foreign languages
***E)made a living as an author and printer

As a boy, the famous inventor Thomas Edison was not a good student. His parents took him out of school after three months and his mother taught him at home, where his great curiosity and desire to experiment often got him into trouble. One day, he set fire to his father's barn. "to see what would happen". When he was ten, he built his own chemistry laboratory. He sold sandwiches and newspapers on the local trains in order to earn money to buy supplies for his laboratory. His parents became accustomed to his experiments and the explosions which sometimes shook the house.

313-We can infer from the passage that young Thomas Edison……… .
A)was not an intelligent child
B)had very strict parents
C)would have been more successful. had he received formal education
D)got his curiosity from his mother
***E)had a questioning mind

314- When he was a child, Thomas Edison………….. .
A)was in the habit of setting fire to things
B)was so intelligent that he did not have to go to school
***C)had a part-time job that enabled him to buy the things he needed for his experiments
D)tried to blow up his house several times
E)left school because he wanted to spend more time with his mother

315-The best generalisation we can make from the passage would be that……….. .
***A)someone's not doing well at school does not necessarily mean that he is dull
B)mothers can educate their children better than professional teachers
C)it is good to have a part-time job as a child
D)the society has always regarded inventors as strange people
E)unintelligent children may sometimes put the whole family in danger

Petroleum products vary greatly in physical appearance: thin, thick, transparent or opaque, but regardless, their chemical composition is made up of only two elements: carbon and hydrogen, which form compounds called hydrocarbons. Other chemical elements found in union with the hydrocarbons are few and are classified as impurities. Trace elements are also found, but in such minute quantities that they are disregarded. The combination of carbon and hydrogen forms many thousands of compounds which are possible because of the various positions and joinings of these two atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule.

316-The common point of all petroleum products is that they………. .
A)are alike in appearance
B)all contain impurities
C)are all very durable
D)contain huge quantities of trace elements
***E)consist of only two elements

317-According to the passage, hydrocarbons are………… .
A)chemical elements classed as impurities
***B)chemical compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen
C)trace elements that give petroleum products their individual characteristics
D)refined using a complex system of distillation
E)found in compounds in small quantities

318-Petroleum products vary so much in physical appearance because………. .
A)impurities change the nature of the substance so much
B)there is a great' demand for them in different forms
C)their chemical composition is made up of countless elements -
***D)carbon and hydrogen atoms can join in thousands of different ways
E)trace elements have a remarkable effect on hydrocarbons

There is an advantage to launching satellites from the equator. The Earth spins faster there, giving rockets a boost in reaching orbit that allows them to carry heavier payloads. But there are few suitable launching sites on the equator that would not involve political problems. Therefore, an international consortium has converted an oil-drilling platform into a floating launch pad, rocket assembly plant, and mission control. They hope to develop the capacity to launch commercial telecommunications satellites.

319-The main advantage of launching satellites from the equator is that…………. .
***A)it is easier to put larger satellites into orbit from there
B)it does not cause political problems in the countries concerned
C)there are a number of oil-drilling platforms available in the area
D)the weather is more reliable there
E)life is cheaper for the mission control and rocket assembly staff

320-The passage states that an international consortium………….. .
***A)is planning to launch satellites from the equator
B)has had problems as to the use of the oil-drilling platform in the equator
C)is negotiating with the equatorial countries for a launching pad
D)is ignoring the political problems having arisen in the area
E)is temporarily launching satellites from an oil-drilling platform

321-Considering the circumstances stated in the passage, the oil-drilling platform mentioned must be, ………… .
A)cheap to convert into a floating launch pad
B)positioned at the best point in the ocean
C)unable to launch rockets with heavier payloads
***D)in international waters, where it does not cause political problems
E)away from any of the equatorial countries

In 776 B.C., the first Olympic Games were held at the foot of Mount Olympus to honour the Greeks' chief god, Zeus. The ancient Greeks emphasised physical fitness and strength in the education of youth. Therefore, contests in running. Jumping, discus and javelin throwing. Boxing, and horse and chariot racing were held in individual cities, and the winners competed every four years at Mount Olympus. Winners were honoured by having olive wreaths placed on their heads and having poems sung about their deeds. Originally these were held as games of friendship, and any wars in progress were halted to allow the games to take place.

322-It is implied in the passage that one purpose of the Olympic games was to……. .
A)increase the number of followers of their chief god, Zeus
B)help the participating athletes make a lot of money
***C)provide encouragement for young men to remain strong and physically fit
D)prepare an atmosphere f6r the poets to produce good literature
E)to ensure the continuity of friendship between the different cities of the area

323-It is stated in the passage that the competitors in the Olympic games……….
A)had to take part in more than one sport
B)were poets who read out their poetry to an audience at Mount Olympus
C)used to spend 'the four years between the two games training
***D)were the winners of similar competitions held in provincial cities
E)were all followers of the cult of Zeus

324-A particularly impressive feature of the ancient Olympics mentioned in the passage was that……….. .
A)the winners were regarded as heroes
B) the competitors came from different social classes
C)they took place annually at Mount Olympus
***D)wars were postponed while the games took place
E)the winners of individual events often became extremely wealthy

The most popular national amusement in Burma is the pwe. This entertainment may consist of acting, singing, dancing, clowning or even puppetry. These plays are performed outdoors -most often on moonlit nights. They usually last all night for several nights in succession. The audience sits on reed mats to watch the show. The pwes are free, and more often than not are given by a wealthy individual for the entertainment of his friends and anyone else who cares to attend. The pwe plays are usually legendary tales about princes and princesses and almost always have a happy ending. Actors wear old-time court costumes and proclaim long speeches, but there is always a down to relieve any boredom. Judging by the laughter the clowns provoke, they are found really funny.

325-The author seems to be suggesting that……….. .
A)pwes are a lot more effective in daylight
B)the audience is expected to participate in the majority of pwes
C)each performer at a pwe must be good at several different art forms
D)puppetry is the most common art form to be included in a pwe
***E)the audiences at pwes find the plays a bit boring at times

326-We learn from the passage that pwes………….. .
A)are a form of entertainment solely for the rich and their friends
B)cannot be attended by people who do not have their own reed mats
C)are performed by actors who come from extremely rich families
***D)can be seen by anyone who's interested, and don't require tickets
E)were originally designed to entertain princes and princesses

327-The author concludes that the clowns at pwes are humorous………… .
A)although they wear traditional clothing and costume
B)because the pwes are so often very boring
***C)as they manage to make the audience laugh a lot
D)despite the fact that they make long, tedious speeches
E)since clowns everywhere are thought to be funny

A lost tribe of Stone Age people known as the Tasaday was discovered in the tropical rain forest in the Philippines in the 1970s. The tribe consisted of 24 people, with completely unique customs and language. They displayed no aggressive tendencies, either to outsiders or each other. They reached decisions at informal meetings at which men and women spoke equally. Age alone commanded respect. They lived a nomadic existence, and knew nothing of farming. Living mostly on wild potatoes, fruits and bamboo shoots, the Tasaday derived some protein from crabs and small fish. Monkey meat was considered a delicacy to be brought out only on special occasions. Although they appeared in good health, they practised no medicine, and confessed to leaving the sick to die.

328-It is understood from the passage that the Tasaday………… .
A)are generally friendlier to strangers than they are to one another
***B)have survived without the benefit of modern technology
C)look more like monkeys than humans
D)cultivated bamboo and fruits
E)discovered in the 1970s consisted of equal numbers of men and women

329-The author suggests that in Tasaday society, ………….. .
***A)both sexes have equal status in decision making
B)women have similar roles to most Western cultures
C)spoke a language similar to the language of the Philippines
D)the oldest member takes decisions alone
E)the young are cared for by the old

330-It is clear from the passage that the Tasaday……….. .
***A)have developed no way in which to treat illness
B)kill the sick in order to cease their suffering
C)feel guilty about their treatment of sick people
D)have a great desire to learn Western medicine
E)are not nearly as healthy as they seem to be

On her first day at the University of Nebraska, Willa Cather was mistaken for a professor. She was only 16, fresh from a small prairie town. Yet, the students were impressed when she peeked around a classroom door and asked, "Is this elementary Greek?" They had been expecting someone like this, with a deep, commanding voice, a solemn face topped with short hair, and a straw hat. So they nodded politely, then burst into laughter when the stranger entered - and proved to be a young girl. Of course, they could not know that she would grow up to be a major American writer.

331-After their first encounter with Willa Cather, the students laughed because………. .
A)she was a great American writer
B)they were impressed by the inherent humour of elementary Greek
C)her straw hat and short hair looked funny
D)she was the youngest professor they had ever seen
***E)they recognised their own mistake

332-At the age of sixteen, Willa Cather…………. .
A)already spoke fluent Greek
B)was impressed by the other students
***C)was already a university student
D)was already a famous American writer
E)was often laughed at by other students

333-It is clear from the passage that…………. .
A)no one at the University of Nebraska realised Willa Cather's potential
B)Willa Cather's writing ability impressed the other students
***C)even at the age of sixteen, Willa Cather was an impressive person
D)the University of Nebraska specialised in educating young, gifted students
E)straw bats were common at the University of Nebraska

There is an ancient belief that when a female wolf loses a young cub, she seeks a human child to take its place. Romulus and Remus, the legendary twin founders of Rome, were supposed to have been cared for by wolves. The idea actually became believable in the late 19th century when a French doctor found a naked ten-year-old boy wandering in the woods. He did not walk upright, could not speak intel1igently, nor relate to people: he only growled like a wolf and stared at them. Finally the doctor won the boy’s confidence and began to work with him. After many long years of devoted and patient instruction, the doctor was able to get the boy to clothe and feed himself, recognise and say a number of words, and even to write a little.

334- It is implied in the passage that………… .
A)the legend of Romulus and Remus is certainly based on reality
B)Romulus and Remus were the actual founders of Rome
C)the boy found in the woods was like a wolf in appearance but not in emotions
***D)people have believed for a long time that female wolves sometimes adopt human children
E)it took a long time for the doctor to train the young wolf

335-The doctor who found the boy must have concluded that…………. .
***A)the boy had possibly been raised by wolves
B)Romulus and Remus were the twins who founded Rome
C)it is not possible to train a human child who grew up in the wild
D)the boy could not speak because he was of sub-normal intelligence
E)the boy was half-human, half-wolf, with supernatural powers

336-Many years after the doctor began working with the boy, ………… .
A)he soon started to behave as a normal human child does
***B)he became more like a human child, but couldn't function completely normally
C)he behaved exactly like Romulus and Remus in the legend
D)he began writing a book about his experiences living with wolves
E)his progress was too slow for the doctor to continue with the initial enthusiasm

In Greek mythology, Pandora was the first woman on the Earth, created by Zeus to avenge Prometheus's theft of fire. Pandora, whose name means ‘all-gifted', was endowed with every charm, but sent to the Earth with a very special deadly box. Prometheus was too wise to be deceived by Pandora's beauty, but his younger brother, Epimetheus, fell in love with her and accepted the box as a wedding present from the gods. When Epimeteus allowed Pandora to open the box, a cloud of evils flew out, spreading death, disease and destruction throughout the world. All that remained inside the box was one small comfort - hope.

337-It can be inferred from the passage that in Greek mythology, …………. .
A)a long with the evils in the box, the gift of fire was included in it
B)women were seen to be wiser and more talented than men were
C)the gods were jealous of women's beauty and punished them for it
***D)the world was a much better place before women came into it
E)people were taught not to accept wedding gifts as they might be evil

338-It's obvious from the passage that ………….. .
A)though she caused many problems, Epimetheus was happily married to Pandora
B)Prometheus was disappointed that Pandora was not extremely beautiful
C)Epimetheus really loved Pandora, but didn't actually want to get married to her
D)Prometheus gave his brother a truly terrible wedding gift because he was jealous
***E)Pandora won Epimetheus's heart, though she was meant for Prometheus

339-According to the legend that's related in the passage, hope…………. .
A)was lost when Pandora released a multitude of bad things into the world
***B)was the only thing left behind to help deal with the problems released into the world
C)meant that Pandora could still manage to deceive Prometheus
D)was eliminated from the Earth by the bad things released from the box
E)was the one thing that Pandora decided not to give to the world

Sir Isaac Newton was drinking tea under the apple trees in his garden one summer afternoon in 1665 when an apple fell from an overhanging branch, hit him on the head and immediately provided the inspiration for his law of gravitation. According to the story that is how it happened, anyway. It may indeed be true, but no one knows for certain. Even the famed British astronomer Sir Harold Spencer Jones, who stated in 1944 that the story was probably true, later changed his mind, noting that ‘one cannot be sure either way.' The story of Newton's Apple first appears in Voltaire's Elements de la Philosophic de Newton, published in 1738, long after the great Englishman had died and 73 years from the time the disputed apple fell.

340-The legend that's being questioned in the passage.………….. .
A)has been shown to be complete nonsense
***B)refers to how Newton was prompted to investigate gravitation
C)was first created by Sir Harold Spencer Jones
D)is a complete fiction invented by the French author Voltaire
E)expresses the luxurious life Newton was leading

341-According to the passage, Sir Harold Spencer Jones………. .
A)has a reputation for knowing everything about Newton
B)should not be taken too seriously as he is known to be indecisive
***C)is well known for his work, which involves observing the universe
D)firmly denies that the incident with Newton and the apple ever happened
E)feels that nothing, including the story about Newton, can be known for certain

342-We can conclude from the passage that……….. .
A)Voltaire knew more about Newton's life than anyone today possibly can
B)Newton deliberately spread the apple story to make his discovery striking
C)Newton came up with his theory just a few years before he died
D)Newton asked Voltaire to tell people about his incident with the apple
***E)it's doubtful whether the popular myth about Newton's Apple is true

Penn Wood, one of Britain's last surviving areas of ancient woodland, with.432 acres of mixed trees as well as grassland, is in a place of outstanding natural beauty. The wood has a record of public usage, stretching back through recorded history, but recently, the menace of 'development and improvement' threatened its survival. In a region already well-endowed with golf courses, the owner submitted plans for yet another 18-hole course. However, this angered local residents. They put up so much opposition to the plans that they were turned down by the Environment Secretary. Frustrated by the strength of the opposition he was receiving, the landowner eventually sold up, and the land was bought by the Woodland Trust, which will preserve the whole site as a prime wildlife habitat.

343-The author seems to……….. .
A)think that environmentalists go too far when they interfere with landowners' rights
***B)be content with the outcome of the case mentioned in the passage
C)be too pessimistic about Penn Wood's chances for survival
D)have lived in the area called Penn Wood for a long time
E)like golf, but thinks that some of the land in Britain should remain wild

344-Penn Wood is located in a region…………
A)which is really underdeveloped
***B)where there are plenty of golf-courses
C)which is home to several rare species
D)where the residents are not interested in golf
E)which is desperately in need of a golf-course

345-Following pressure from local people, Penn Wood's former owner……….. .
A)founded a nature preserve instead of a golf course
B)established a nature group called the Woodland mist
C)built an 18-hole golf course in the area
D)took the case to the Environment Secretary
***E)had to sell the land to a nature group

Sleep researchers have found that people can make themselves wake up at a given time simply by deciding to do so before they go to sleep. Scientists took two groups of volunteers and, at nightfall, told one group that they would be woken at 6 a.m. and the other that they would be woken at 9 a.m. The sleepers' levels of the hormone adrenocorticotropin, which is known to cause spontaneous awakening, were then measured. In each group, there was a rise in the levels of the hormone one hour before the volunteers expected to get up. The three-hour difference between the rise in hormones in the two groups suggests that the body can be programmed to wake up on command.

346-The people studied by the researchers………. .
***A)participated in the experiment at their own will
B)suffered from insomnia
C)were having difficulty getting up early
D)were unable to wake up by other means
E)came from similar backgrounds

347-It seems that adrenocorticotropin………… .
A)exists in higher levels in people who wake up very early
***B)is produced by the body some time before a person wakes up
C)can't be measured without waking up the person being studied
D)is used by doctors for people who have difficulty getting up
E)is responsible for causing sleeplessness in a number of people

348-The experiment related in the passage has indicated that……. .
A)people who wake up at 6 a.m. have more hormones than 9 a.m. risers
B)computers can be used to help people wake up earlier than usual
***C)our bodies are capable of being conditioned to wakeup at a suggested hour
D)the hormones that wake people up have a three-hour long cycle
E)hormones are more effective than outside stimuli for waning people

The Romanesque style of architecture flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries. Its primary characteristics are the round arch and thick walls, reminding people of the structures of ancient Rome. But the period is also noted for the reappearance of large figure sculptures and for the achievement of uniting sculpture with architecture. In the Romanesque period large numbers of figures began to be carved in stone in many cathedrals, churches and monasteries. These figures generally portrayed religious scenes, as the principal intent was to proclaim the teaching of the Christian faith. But at the same time, neither artists nor patrons had lost their taste for pure ornament. Thus, along with the biblical narrative appeared brilliant abstract decoration, based on the forms of plants, trees and animals.

349-We can assume that in the Romanesque period, architects………… .
A)imported ancient buildings from Rome, stone by stone
B)were less skilled than the sculptors they worked with
C)designed identical buildings to those in ancient Rome
D)excelled in plain designs, with few illustrations
***E)must have worked closely with sculptors on the design

350-The carved figures in Romanesque churches ………… .
A)were painted onto the wooden panels
***B)mainly illustrated biblical stories
C)were brought into churches from Rome
D)were only created by religious men
E)had been removed from older buildings

351-The sculptors who worked on Romanesque religious buildings………. .
***A)not only created religious works but also images from nature
B)were only interested in Christianity, and had little interest in art
C)had to focus on the religious message and weren't allowed any ornamentation
D)regarded themselves as superior to architects
E)preferred to decorate their work merely with religious themes

Stuttering is the term given to the condition in which the sufferer speaks with difficulty because he or she cannot easily say the first sound of a word. Overall, there are about 50 million stutters in the world. Despite decades of research, the cause of stuttering is not known, though - contrary to popular opinion - it is not thought to be caused by emotional distress. Some believe it might be caused genetically, but scientists have been unable to pinpoint the actual reasons. What is known, however, is that it affects four times more men than women, and that 25% of all children go through a stage of development during which they stutter. Stuttering can be extremely demoralising. Those who are severely affected often attempt to avoid speaking situations altogether.

352-The passage tells us that stuttering………. .
A)is passed down genetically from fathers to sons
B)usually stems from the sufferer experiencing a sudden shock
***C)is a type of speech problem that affects a large number of people
D)can be avoided by neglecting to say the Initial sounds of words
E)is an incurable disease, and sufferers have no hope of recovery

353-We learn from the passage that scientists……….. .
A)know that stuttering is genetic, but haven't found the gene that causes it
B)doing research into stuttering generally agree with public opinion
***C)have not yet been able to determine exactly what causes stuttering
D)have discovered that both genetics and psychology cause stuttering
E)feel that stuttering is caused by emotional problems but can't prove this

354-It is implied in the passage that stuttering………… .
A)will always cause people suffering from it to be unable to speak at all
B)can be avoided by trying not to speak around too many people
C)affects only one-quarter of all women, but practically all men
***D)can have a large negative impact on the social life of the sufferer
E)is easily treated if people are willing to avoid speaking in public

Women do not compete against men in sport because of medical misconceptions about their bodies, says Ellis Cashmore, a professor of sociology. He claims it's only in the past 300 years that anatomists have pointed out the differences between men’s and women's bodies, apart from the most obvious ones. Before then, they were seen as fairly similar. By the late 19th century, closer examination led to anatomists looking for inferiorities in women's bodies and believing that even their organs had different functions to men's. Cashmore's argument is that despite women's exclusion from most sports for the first half of this century, they have caught men up rather rapidly. Women's best times in the marathon have improved by an average per year of 2 minutes 47 seconds while men's have improved by a mere 66 seconds.

355-It can be inferred from this passage that Cashmore believes that……….. .
A)modern medicine is based more on myth than on genuine scientific fact
B)sociologists are better qualified to discuss human anatomy than medical researchers
C)in the last three centuries, there have been significant changes in the anatomy of women
D)it is quite obvious that women should not be allowed to participate in sport against men
***E)there's no good reason why men and women shouldn't compete against each other in sport

356-Accordlog to the passage, 19th century anatomists………… .
A)were surprised to learn that there were hardly any differences between men and women
B)were Claiming that women shouldn't be excluded from various sports
C)discovered that, apart from the obvious differences, men and women were alike
D)supported the idea that women were physically weaker than men
E)were concerned with the reasons why men seemed to outperform women in sport

357-The author quotes the times 2 minutes 47 seconds and 66 seconds to illustrate that…….. .
A)despite progress, women still take more than twice as long as men in marathons
B)women are actually superior to men in long distance running
C)the gap between men's and women's performances in sport is shrinking
D)his theory is scientific by including mathematical figures
E)women will one day surpass men in athletic endeavours